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15.4.7 Quality of service
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In addition to flexible bandwidth allocation, ATM offers a guaranteed quality of service (QoS) which differs for various applications. For example voice and video are sensitive to cell delay and more so to variations in cell delay, but may be able to tolerate some loss of cells. Data on the other hand is not affected by cell delay (within limits) but cannot tolerate cell loss. When a connection is requested by a user the network is first tested to ensure that the guaranteed QoS can be provided, otherwise the user request is not accepted. There are in fact five service classes based on bit rate and these are summarized in Table 15.1. A number of parameters are used in the measurement of ATM performance, and these are shown in Table 15.2. 15.5 ATM over Satellite The ATM, described in the previous sections is used in terrestrial networks, to carry a mixture of signals, for example voice, data, video, and images. A natural development is to extend the ATM networks to include satellite links to bring the services of ATM to remote or isolated users, and also to provide broadcast facilities. Satellite links have the additional advantage of enabling local area networks (LANs) that are widely
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TABLE 15.2
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ATM Technical Parameters Definition Percentage of cells not delivered to their destination because of congestion or buffer overflow. The delay experienced by a cell between entry and exit points of a network A measure of the variance of the cell transfer delay. The maximum cell rate at which a user will transmit. The average transmission rate measured over a long period, of the order of the connection lifetime. Determines the maximum burst that can be sent at the peak rate.
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Technical parameter Cell loss ratio (CLR)
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Cell transfer delay (CTD) Cell delay variation (CDV) Peak cell rate (PCR) Sustained cell rate (SCR)
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SOURCE: With minor modifications from Web ProForum Tutorials, The International Engineering Consortium, http://www.iec.org.
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separated geographically to be linked together, thus forming a wide area network (WAN). ATM over satellite is usually abbreviated as SATM in the literature (for satellite ATM). Satellites may be incorporated into ATM networks in a number of ways, some of which are described here, but there are certain problems unique to satellite links that have to be addressed in all cases. The first of these is the BER. ATM was originally designed to operate over optical fiber links where bit errors are randomly distributed and the probability of bit error is comparatively low, in the order of 10 10. In satellite links the BER is generally much higher than this, (see Figs. 10.17 and 11.8), and more importantly, bit errors can occur in bursts. In laboratory tests involving MPEG-2 signals it has been shown (Ivancic et al., 1997; 1998) that a BER of better than 10 8 is required for the most stringent ATM applications. Such values may be achieved using concatenated convolution and Reed-Solomon (R-S) forward error correction (FEC), (see Sec. 11.6). The problem with applying FEC to ATM signals overall is that error correction is being applied to channels that might be tolerant of a higher BER such as voice, and thus is a waste of resources. A number of commercial error-control schemes for ATM over satellite are available. The Ericsson CLA-2000 ATM Link Accelerator (Ericsson, 2003) uses adaptive R-S and interleaving mechanisms, resulting in a cell loss ratio (CLR) and a cell error ratio (CER) of 10 10 or better (see Table 15.2). By adaptive is meant that the coding scheme is adjusted to suit the application (e.g., voice or data), and it dynamically adapts to the link conditions, for example, on clear days it uses less FEC overhead, achieving a 7 percent increase in bandwidth.
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