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(a) Fixed network access; (b) layer architecture.
user (M UNI) and by a mobility enhanced UNI/NNI layer (M UNI/ NNI) at the ATM switch. Mobility management includes location management, (authentication, registration, paging, roaming, and routing) and handoff, required when the mobile units move from one location to another. An extensive overview of satellite architectures will be found in Toh and Li, (1998), a summary of which is given in Table 15.3. LEO satellites offer two main advantages over GEO satellites for networking. Because of the shorter ranges involved, the propagation delay is very much less, and, much lower transmit power is needed. Constellations
Satellites in Networks
TABLE 15.3
Satellite ATM Architectures Bent pipe Relay Point to point linkage between two fixed ATM users. On board processing (OBP) Not applicable.
Network
Fixed ATM
Access UNI at user terminal; UNI/NNI at GES. No mobility support. Mobility enhanced UNI at user terminal and NNI between GES and ATM network. Interconnect High speed interconnection between fixed ATM networks PNNI, B-ICI, or public UNI between GESs and ATM networks. No mobility support. High speed interconnections between mobile and fixed ATM networks and between two mobile ATM networks. Mobility enhanced NNI between GESs and networks. Full mesh Not applicable.
Mobile ATM
Media access required. UNI between user and satellite. No mobility support. Mobility support provided by the mobility enhanced switching at terrestrial ATM and at satellite.
Fixed ATM
Mobile ATM
ATM switch on board satellite acts as intermediate node. Supports NNI signaling, cell switching, and multiplexing. No mobility support if GEOs used. High speed interconnections between mobile and fixed ATM networks, and between two mobile ATM networks. Mobility enhanced NNI between GESs and networks.
SATM
Satellites form an ATM network in space, which supports all of the above scenarios.
NOTES: ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode; B-ICI Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface; GES Gateway Earth Station; NNI Network Node Interface; PNNI Private Network Node Interface; SATM Satellite ATM (network); UNI User Network Interface.
of LEO satellites with on-board processing are employed. However, because the LEO satellites are not geostationary, antenna beam switching is required as the spot beam pattern sweeps across a given earth location. This is referred to as intra-satellite switching. Switching between inter-satellite links (ISLs) is also required as any given satellite moves out of the range of a particular earth location. This all adds to the complexity of the on-board requirements. Figure 15.8a is a block schematic of a typical ATM LEO satellite network (Todorova, 2002). User terminals may access the LEO satellite system directly, or they may require an adaptation unit (similar to the modem shown in Fig. 15.6). The public ATM network accesses the LEO satellite system through gateways
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S-ATM node mVC/PVP
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Gateway
Adaptation unit
Public ATM
User terminal (a)
User terminal
S-ATM node
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Beam 1
Beam 2
Beam 3
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
Terminal 1
Terminal 2 (b)
(a) Configuration of a network management system; (b) relationship between port, beam, carrier, and terminal. (Courtesy of Petia Todovora.)
(as in Fig. 15.7). Decentralized network management is proposed in the system described by Todorova, (2002), where overall management is provided by the network control center (NCC) but certain functions are carried out by the satellite ATM switches (S-ATM). The management information is carried in signaling channels termed management virtual channels (mVCs). For added security a stand-by path, in the form of a permanent virtual path (PVP), is provided in the event that the signaling channel should fail.
Satellites in Networks
Figure 15.8b is a block schematic showing the relationship between port, beam, carrier, and terminal (Todorova and Nguyen, 2001). As shown, the ports from the ATM switch connect to individual beams. The beams may be multicarrier, two being shown in Fig. 15.8, and each carrier can be received by more than one earth terminal. 15.6 The Internet On October 24, 1995, the Federal Networking Council (FNC) in the United States passed a resolution defining the Internet as a global information system that 1. Is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons 2. Is able to support communications using the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols 3. Provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, highlevel services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein. This formal description of the Internet summarizes what in fact was many years of evolutionary growth and change (see Leiner et al., 2000). The key elements in this definition are the TCP and the IP, both of which are described shortly. These protocols are usually lumped together as TCP/IP and are embedded in the software for operating systems and browsers such as Windows and Netscape. The Internet does not have its own physical structure. It makes use of existing physical plant, the copper wires, optical fibers, and satellite links, owned by companies such as AT&T, MCI, and Sprint. Although there is no identifiable structure, access to the Internet follows well-defined rules. Users connect to Internet service providers (ISPs), who in turn connect to network service providers (NSPs), who complete the connections to other users and to servers. Servers are computers dedicated to the purpose of providing information to the Internet. They run specialized software for each type of Internet application. These include email, discussion groups, long-distance computing, and file transfers. Routers are computers that form part of the communications net and that route or direct the data along the best available paths in the network. Although there is no central management or authority for the Internet, its extraordinarily rapid growth has meant that some control has to be exercised over what is permitted. A summary of the controlling groups is shown in Fig. 15.9a. A description of the groups will be found in Leiner et al. (2000) and Mackenzie (1998).
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