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receiving its ACK. With geostationary (GEO) satellites, the round-trip propagation path is ground station-to-satellite-to-ground station and back again. The range from ground station to the satellite (see Chap. 3) is on the order of 40,000 km, and therefore, the propagation path for the round trip is 4 40,000 160,000 km. The propagation delay is therefore 160,000 103/(3 108) 0.532 s. This is just the space propagation delay. The total round-trip time must take into account the propagation delays on the terrestrial circuits and the delays resulting from signal processing. For order of magnitude calculations, an RTT value of 0.55 s would be appropriate. The send TCP layer must wait this length of time to receive the ACKs, and of course, it cannot send new segments until the ACKs are received, which is going to slow the throughput. The send TCP timeout period is also based on the RTT, and this will be unduly lengthened. Also, with interactive applications, such as Telnet, this delay is highly undesirable. Bandwidth-delay product (BDP). The RTT is also used in determining an important factor known as the bandwidth delay product (BDP). The delay part of this refers to the RTT, since a sender has to wait this amount of time for the ACK before sending more data. The bandwidth refers to the channel bandwidth. As shown in Chaps. 10 and 12, bandwidth and bit rate are directly related. In network terminology, the bandwidth is usually specified in bytes per second (or multiples of this), where it is understood that 1 byte is equal to 8 bits. For example, a satellite bandwidth of 36 MHz carrying a BPSK signal could handle a bit rate given by Eq. (14.30) as 30 Mb/s. This is equivalent to 3.75 106 B/s or about 3662 kB/s. If the sender transmits at this rate, the largest packet it can send within the RTT of 0.55 s is 3662 0.55 2014 kB approximately. This is the BDP for the twoway satellite channel. The channel is sometimes referred to as a pipeline, and one that has a high BDP, as a long fat pipe. Now the receive TCP layer uses a 16-bit word to notify the send TCP layer of the size of the receive window it is going to use. Allowing 1 byte for certain overheads, the biggest segment size that can be declared for the receive window is 216 1 65,535 bytes, or approximately 64 kB. (Recall that 1 kB is equal to 1024 bytes.) This falls well short of the 2014 kilobytes set by the BDP for the channel, and thus the channel is very underutilized. Variable round-trip time. Where lower earth orbiting satellites are used such as those in LEOs and MEOs, the propagation delays will be much less than that for the GEO. The slant range to LEOs is typically on the order of a few thousand kilometers at most, and for MEOs, a few tens of thousand kilometers. The problem with these orbits is not so much the absolute value of delay as the variability. Because these satellites are not geostationary, the slant range varies,
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and for continuous communications there is the need for intersatellite links, which also adds to the delay and the variability. For example, for LEOs, the delay can vary from a few to about 80 ms. Whether or not this will have an impact on TCP performance is currently an open question (RFC-2488). 15.10 Enhancing TCP Over Satellite Channels Using Standard Mechanisms (RFC-2488) In keeping with the objective that, where possible, the TCP itself should not be modified to accommodate satellite links, the Request for Comments 2488 (RFC-2488) describes in detail several ways in which the performance over satellite links can be improved. These are summarized in Table 15.4. The first two mechanisms listed do not require any changes to the TCP. The others do require extensions to the TCP. As always, any extensions to the TCP must maintain compatibility with networks that do not employ the extensions. Brief descriptions of the mechanisms are included, but the reader is referred to the Requests for Comments (RFCs) for full details (see Sec. 15.11). MTU stands for maximum transmission unit, and Path MTU-Discovery is a method that allows the sender to find the largest packet and, hence, largest TCP segment size that can be sent without fragmentation. The congestion window is incremented in segments; hence, larger segments allow the congestion window to increment faster in terms of number of bytes carried. There is a delay involved in implementing Path MTU-Discovery, and of course, there is the added complexity. Overall, however, it improves the performance of TCP over satellite links.
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