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950 1450 MHz To indoor unit (IDU)
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Block schematic for the outdoor unit (ODU).
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The reduction in gain is given by (see Baylin and Gale, 1991)
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where is the rms tolerance in the same units as l, the wavelength. For example, at 12 GHz (wavelength 2.5 cm) and for an rms tolerance of 1 mm, the gain is reduced by a factor
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0.1/2.5
This is a reduction of about 1.5 dB. The isotropic power gain of the antenna is proportional to (D/l)2, as shown by Eq. (6.32), where D is the diameter of the antenna. Hence, increasing the diameter will increase the gain (less any reduction resulting from rms tolerance), and in fact, many equipment manufacturers provide signal-strength contours showing the size of antenna that is best for a given region. Apart from the limitations to size stated earlier, it should be noted that at any given DBS location there are clusters of satellites, as described in Sec. 16.2. The beamwidth of the antenna must be wide enough to receive from all satellites in the cluster. For example,
Sixteen
A typical DBS antenna installation.
the Hughes DBS-1 satellite, launched on December 18, 1993, is located at 101.2 W longitude; DBS-2, launched on August 3, 1994, is at 100.8 W longitude; and DBS-3, launched on June 3, 1994, is at 100.8 W longitude. There is a spread of plus or minus 0.2 about the nominal 101 W position. The 3-dB beamwidth is given as approximately 70l/D, as shown by Eq. (6.33). A 60-cm dish at 12 GHz would have a 3-dB beamwidth of approximately 70 2.5/60 2.9 , which is adequate for the cluster. 16.10 The Home Receiver Indoor Unit (IDU) The block schematic for the IDU is shown in Fig. 16.7. The transponder frequency bands shown in Fig. 16.2 are downconverted to be in the range 950 to 1450 MHz, but of course, each transponder retains
Block schematic for the indoor unit (IDU).
Sixteen
its 24-MHz bandwidth. The IDU must be able to receive any of the 32 transponders, although only 16 of these will be available for a single polarization. The tuner selects the desired transponder. It should be recalled that the carrier at the center frequency of the transponder is QPSK modulated by the bit stream, which itself may consist of four to eight TV programs TDM. Following the tuner, the carrier is demodulated, the QPSK modulation being converted to a bit stream. Error correction is carried out in the decoder block labeled FEC 1. The demultiplexer following the FEC 1 block separates the individual programs, which are then stored in buffer memories for further processing (not shown in the diagram). This further processing would include such things as conditional access, viewing history of pay-per-view (PPV) usage, and connection through a modem to the service provider (for PPV billing purposes). A detailed description of the IRD will be found in Mead (2000).
16.11 Downlink Analysis The main factor governing performance of a DBS system will be the [Eb/N0] of the downlink. The downlink performance for clear-sky conditions can be determined using the method described in Sec. 12.8 and illustrated in Example 16.1 that follows. The effects of rain can be calculated using the procedure given in Sec. 12.9.2 and illustrated in Example 16.2 that follows. In calculating the effects of rain, use is made of Fig. 16.8, which shows the regions (indicated by letters) tabulated along with rainfall in Table 16.2.
Example 16.1 A ground station located at 45 N and 90 W is receiving the trans-
mission from a DBS at 101 W. The [EIRP] is 55 dBW, and the downlink frequency may be taken as 12.5 GHz for calculations. Transmission at the full capacity of 40 Mbps may be assumed. An 18-in-diameter antenna is used, and an efficiency of 0.55 may be assumed. Miscellaneous transmission losses of 2 dB also may be assumed. For the IRD, the equivalent noise temperature at the input to the LNA is 100 K, and the antenna noise temperature is 70 K. Calculate the look angles for the antenna, the range, and the [Eb/N0] at the IRD and comment on this.
Solution Use a value of 6371 km for the mean earth radius, and 42164 km for the geostationary radius.
From Eq. (3.8): B From Eq. (3.9): b a cos(cos B # cos lE) a cos(cos 11 # cos 45 ) 46.04
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