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17.1 Introduction The idea that three geostationary satellites could provide communications coverage for the whole of the earth, apart from relatively small regions at the north and south poles, is generally credited to Clarke (1945). The basic idea was sound, but of course the practicalities led to the development of a much more complex undertaking than perhaps was envisioned originally. Technological solutions were found to the many problems that were encountered, and as a result, satellite services expanded into many new areas. Geostationary satellites are still the most numerous and well in excess of three! If an average of 2 spacing is assumed, the geostationary orbit would provide 180 orbital positions, and in practice satellites are often employed in clusters, with more than one satellite at an assigned orbital position. The 180 orbital positions are not occupied in a uniform distribution as in practice satellites are concentrated to serve regions where services are most in demand. In addition to geostationary satellites, much more use is being made of nongeostationary orbits, especially low earth orbits (LEOs) and medium earth orbits (MEOs). As described in Chap. 15, a service may utilize a combination of geostationary and nongeostationary satellites. Although the developments in satellites generally have led to a need for larger satellites, a great deal has been happening with small satellites, often referred to as microsats (see Sweeting, 1992, and Williamson, 1994). In this chapter, brief descriptions are given of some of these services to illustrate the range of applications now found for satellites.
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17.2 Satellite Mobile Services Although countries in the developed world are well served by global communications, there remain large areas and population groups that have very limited access to telecommunications services. In the United States and some European countries, telephone landline density, measured by the number of phone lines per 100 people, is as much as 30 times higher than in China, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and an estimated 3 billion people worldwide have no phone at home (Miller, 1998). Developing a telephone network on the ground, whether wired or cellular, is time-consuming and expensive. Civil infrastructure may need to be installed or upgraded, including roads and utilities such as water and electricity. Once satellites are deployed in orbit, they can provide wide area service for telephone, facsimile, and Internet, on an as-needed basis, without the need for extensive ground facilities. An Internet search for mobile satellite companies will provide a confusing array of data, with company mergers and filings for bankruptcy frequently being reported. Unfortunately, many of the Internet reports do not have dates and it becomes difficult to determine the current situation, or possible future developments, and only those systems that appear to be well established will be described. Most of the systems that offer telephone services provide the users with dual-mode phones that operate to GSM standards. GSM stands for global system for mobile communications (originally Groupe Spe cial Mobile); it is the most widely used standard for cellular and personal communications. The user frequencies are in the L (1 to 2 GHz) and S (2 to 4 GHz) bands, and where geostationary satellites are employed these require large on-board antennas in the range 100 to 200 m2.
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Asian Cellular System.
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The Asian Cellular System, or AceS, utilizes one Garuda geosynchronous satellite covering the Asia Pacific area, an area of over 11 million square miles. The footprint ranges from China in the north to Indonesia in the south, and the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the east to India and Pakistan in the west. The satellite is positioned at 123 E longitude with a variation of plus or minus 3 N and S. It will stabilize at the assigned equatorial longitude variation after 3.7 years in operation. As noted in Sec. 7.5, by placing the satellite in an inclined orbit, the N-S station-keeping maneuvers may be dispensed with. The savings in weight achieved by not having to carry fuel for these maneuvers allows the communications payload to be increased, but this arrangement requires the use of tracking antennas at the ground station network control center. The population of the regions serviced totals over 3.5 billion The Garuda satellite has capacity for at least 11,000 simultaneous telephone channels, servicing up to 2 million subscribers. The satellites utilize
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