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used but is not efficient for low-density uplink traffic from the VSAT. The traffic in a VSAT network is mostly data transfer of a bursty nature, examples being inventory control, credit verification, and reservation requests occurring at random and possibly infrequent intervals, so allocation of time slots in the normal TDMA mode can lead to low channel occupancy. A form of demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) is employed in some systems in which channel capacity is assigned in response to the fluctuating demands of the VSATs in the network. DAMA can be used with FDMA as well as TDMA, but the disadvantage of the method is that a reserve channel must be instituted through which the VSATs can make requests for channel allocation. As pointed out by Abramson (1990), the problem of access then shifts to how the users may access the reserve channel in an efficient and equitable manner. Abramson presents a method of code-division multiple access (CDMA) using spread spectrum techniques, coupled with the Aloha protocol. The basic Aloha method is a random-access method in which packets are transmitted at random in defined time slots. The system is used where the packet time is small compared with the slot time, and provision is made for dealing with packet collisions which can occur with packets sent up from different VSATs. Abramson calls this method spread Aloha and presents theoretical results which show that the method provides the highest throughput for small earth stations. VSAT systems operate in a star configuration, which means that the connection of one VSAT to another must be made through the hub. This requires a double-hop circuit with a consequent increase in propagation delay, and twice the necessary satellite capacity is required compared with a single-hop circuit (Hughes et al., 1993). In Hughes, a proposal is presented for a VSAT system which provides for mesh connection, where the VSATs can connect with one another through the satellite in a single hop. Most VSAT systems operate in the Ku band, although there are some C-band systems in existence (Rana et al., 1990). For fixed-area coverage by the satellite beam, the system performance is essentially independent of the carrier frequency. For fixed-area coverage, the beamwidth and hence the ratio l/D is a constant (see Eq. 6.33). The satellite antenna gain is therefore constant (see Eq. 6.32), and for a given high-power amplifier output, the satellite EIRP remains constant. As shown in Sec. 12.3.1, for a given size of antenna at the earth station and a fixed EIRP from the satellite, the received power at the earth station is independent of frequency. This ignores the propagation margins needed to combat atmospheric and rain attenuation. As shown in Hughes et al. (1993), the necessary fade margins are not excessive for a Ka-band VSAT system, and the performance otherwise is comparable with a Ku-band system. (From Table 1.1, the K band covers 18 to 27 GHz and Ka band covers
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27 to 40 GHz. In Hughes (1993), results are presented for frequencies of 18.7 and 28.5 GHz.) As summarized in Rana et al. (1990), the major shortcomings of present-day VSAT systems are the high initial costs, the tendency toward optimizing systems for large networks (typically more than 500 VSATs), and the lack of direct VSAT-to-VSAT links. Technological improvements, especially in the areas of microwave technology and digital signal processing (Hughes et al., 1993), will result in VSAT systems in which most, if not all, of these shortcomings will be overcome. 17.4 Radarsat Radarsat is an earth-resources remote-sensing satellite, which is part of the Canadian space program. Radarsat-1 was launched on November 4, 1995, and Radarsat-2 is scheduled for launch in 2006. The objectives of the Radarsat program, as stated by the Canadian Space Agency, are to:
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Provide application benefits for resource management and maritime safety Develop, launch, and operate an earth observation satellite with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Establish a Canadian mission control facility Market Radarsat data globally through a commercial distributor Make SAR data available for research Map the whole world with stereo radar Map Antarctica in two seasons The applications seen for Radarsat are:
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Shipping and fisheries Ocean feature mapping Oil pollution monitoring Sea ice mapping (including dynamics) Iceberg detection Crop monitoring Forest management Geological mapping (including stereo SAR) Topographic mapping Land use mapping
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