ssrs 2014 barcode Two-line elements for some geostationary satellites. in Software

Drawer QR Code 2d barcode in Software Two-line elements for some geostationary satellites.

Two-line elements for some geostationary satellites.
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The Geostationary Orbit
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rotation from the Greenwich meridian. The Greenwich sidereal time (GST) gives the eastward position of the Greenwich meridian relative to the line of Aries, and hence the subsatellite point is at longitude
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(3.20)
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and the mean longitude of the satellite is given by
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SSmean
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(3.21)
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Equation (2.31) can be used to calculate the true anomaly, and because of the small eccentricity, this can be approximated as M 2e sin M (3.22)
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The two-line elements for the Intelsat series, obtained from Celestrak at http://celestrak.com/NORAD/elements/intelsat.txt are shown in Fig. 3.7.
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Example 3.5 Using the data given in Fig. 3.7, calculate the longitude for INTELSAT
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10-02.
Solution
From Fig. 3.7 the inclination is seen to be 0.0079 , which makes the orbit almost equatorial. Also the revolutions per day are 1.00271159, or approximately geosynchronous. Other values taken from Fig. 3.7 are: 124.94126775 days; 190.2817 ; e year 2005; 311.0487 ; w
epoch day 59.4312 ; M
From Table 2.2 the Julian day for Jan0.0 2005 is JD00 2453370.5 days. The Julian day for epoch is JD 2453370.5 124.94126775 2453495.44126775 days. The reference value is (see Eq. 2.20) JDref 2415020 days. Hence T in Julian centuries is: T JD JDref
36525 38475.442 36525 1.05340017 The decimal fraction of the epoch gives the UT as a fraction of a day, and in degrees this is: UT 0.94126775 338.85637 Substituting these values in Eq. (2.34) gives, for the GST: GST 99.9610 36000.7689 T 0.0004 T2 UT 360
201.764 (mod 360 )
Three
Equation (3.22) gives: M 2e sin M 2 .0000613 sin190.2817
3.32104 rad 190.28044 Equation (3.20) then gives:
GST 59.4313 358.996 311.0487 190.2804 201.764
and Eq. (3.21):
SSmean
M 59.4313 358.996
GST 311.0487 190.2804 201.764
From Table 1.3 the assigned spot for INTELSAT 10-02 is 359 east. Modified inclination and eccentricity parameters can be derived from the specified values of inclination i, the eccentricity e, and the angles w and . Details of these will be found in Maral and Bousquet (1998). 3.6 Earth Eclipse of Satellite If the earth s equatorial plane coincided with the plane of the earth s orbit around the sun (the ecliptic plane), geostationary satellites would be eclipsed by the earth once each day. As it is, the equatorial plane is tilted at an angle of 23.4 to the ecliptic plane, and this keeps the satellite in full view of the sun for most days of the year, as illustrated by position A in Fig. 3.8. Around the spring and autumnal equinoxes, when the sun is crossing the equator, the satellite does pass into the earth s shadow at certain periods, these being periods of eclipse as illustrated in Fig. 3.8. The spring equinox is the first day of spring, and the autumnal equinox is the first day of autumn. Eclipses begin 23 days before equinox and end 23 days after equinox. The eclipse lasts about 10 min at the beginning and end of the eclipse period and increases to a maximum duration of about 72 min at full eclipse (Spilker, 1977). During an eclipse, the solar cells do not function, and operating power must be supplied from batteries. This is discussed further in Sec. 7.2, and Fig. 7.3 shows eclipse time as a function of days of the year. Where the satellite longitude is east of the earth station, the satellite enters eclipse during daylight (and early evening) hours for the earth station, as illustrated in Fig. 3.9. This can be undesirable if the satellite
The Geostationary Orbit
Figure 3.8 Showing satellite eclipse and satellite sun transit around spring and autumn equinoxes.
has to operate on reduced battery power. Where the satellite longitude is west of the earth station, eclipse does not occur until the earth station is in darkness, (or early morning) when usage is likely to be low. Thus satellite longitudes which are west, rather than east, of the earth station are more desirable.
Figure 3.9 A satellite east of the earth station enters eclipse during daylight and early evening (busy) hours at the earth station. A satellite west of the earth station enters eclipse during night and early morning (nonbusy) hours.
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