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where El is the angle of elevation. An effect known as atmospheric scintillation can also occur. This is a fading phenomenon, the fading period being several tens of seconds (Miya, 1981). It is caused by differences in the atmospheric refractive index, which in turn results in focusing and defocusing of the radio waves, which follow different ray paths through the atmosphere. It may be necessary to make an allowance for atmospheric scintillation, through the introduction of a fade margin in the link power-budget calculations.
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4.3 Ionospheric Effects Radio waves traveling between satellites and earth stations must pass through the ionosphere. The ionosphere is the upper region of the earth s atmosphere, which has been ionized, mainly by solar radiation. The
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TABLE 4.1
Propagation Concerns for Satellite Communications Systems Physical cause Atmospheric gases, cloud, rain Rain, ice crystals Prime importance Frequencies above about 10 GHz Dual-polarization systems at C and Ku bands (depends on system configuration) Communication and tracking at low elevation angles Tropospheric at frequencies above 10 GHz and low-elevation angles; ionospheric at frequencies below 10 GHz Mobile satellite services Precise timing and location systems; time division multiple access (TDMA) systems Mainly C band at present; rain scatter may be significant at higher frequencies
Propagation impairment Attenuation and sky noise increases Signal depolarization
Refraction, atmospheric multipath Signal scintillations
Atmospheric gases Tropospheric and ionospheric refractivity fluctuations
Reflection multipath, blockage Propagation delays, variations
Earth s surface, objects on surface Troposphere, ionosphere
Intersystem interference
Ducting, scatter, diffraction
SOURCE:
Brussard and Rogers, 1990.
free electrons in the ionosphere are not uniformly distributed but form in layers. Furthermore, clouds of electrons (known as traveling ionospheric disturbances) may travel through the ionosphere and give rise to fluctuations in the signal that can only be determined on a statistical basis. The effects include scintillation, absorption, variation in the direction of arrival, propagation delay, dispersion, frequency change, and polarization rotation (CCIR Report 263-5, 1982). All these effects decrease as frequency increases, most in inverse proportion to the frequency squared, and only the polarization rotation and scintillation effects are of major concern for satellite communications. Polarization rotation is described in Sec. 5.5. Ionospheric scintillations are variations in the amplitude, phase, polarization, or angle of arrival of radio waves. They are caused by irregularities in the ionosphere which change with time. The main effect of scintillations is fading of the signal. The fades can be quite severe, and they may last up to several minutes. As with fading caused by atmospheric scintillations, it may be necessary to include a fade margin in the link power-budget calculations to allow for ionospheric scintillation.
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Total zenith attenuation at ground level: pressure 1 atm, temperature 20 C, and water vapor 7.5 g/m3 . (Adapted from CCIR Report 719-2, with permission from International Telecommunication Union.)
4.4 Rain Attenuation Rain attenuation is a function of rain rate. By rain rate is meant the rate at which rainwater would accumulate in a rain gauge situated at the ground in the region of interest (e.g., at an earth station). In calculations relating to radio wave attenuation, the rain rate is measured in millimeters per hour. Of interest is the percentage of time that specified values are exceeded. The time percentage is usually that of a year; for example, a rain rate of 0.001 percent means that the rain rate would be exceeded for 0.001 percent of a year, or about 5.3 min during any one year. In this case the rain rate would be denoted by R0.001. In general,
Radio Wave Propagation
the percentage time is denoted by p and the rain rate by Rp. The specific attenuation is aRb dB/km p (4.2)
where a and b depend on frequency and polarization. Values for a and b are available in tabular form in a number of publications. The values in Table 4.2 have been abstracted from Table 4.3 of Ippolito (1986). The subscripts h and v refer to horizontal and vertical polarizations respectively. Once the specific attenuation is found, the total attenuation is determined as L dB (4.3)
where L is the effective path length of the signal through the rain. Because the rain density is unlikely to be uniform over the actual path length, an effective path length must be used rather than the actual (geometric) length. Figure 4.3 shows the geometry of the situation. The geometric, or slant, path length is shown as LS. This depends on the antenna angle of elevation and the rain height hR, which is the height at which freezing occurs. Figure 4.4 shows curves for hR for different climatic zones. In this figure, three methods are labeled: Method 1 maritime climates; Method 2 tropical climates; Method 3 continental climates. For the last, curves are shown for p values of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 percent. For small angles of elevation (El 10 ), the determination of LS is complicated by earth curvature (see CCIR Report 564-2, 1982). However,
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