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6.12.1 Conical horn antennas
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The smooth-walled conical antenna shown in Fig. 6.10 is the simplest horn structure. The term smooth-walled refers to the inside wall. The horn may be fed from a rectangular waveguide, but this requires a rectangular-tocircular transition at the junction. Feeding from a circular guide is
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Horn antennas: (a) smooth-walled conical, (b) corrugated, and (c) pyramidal.
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direct and is the preferred method, with the guide operating in the TE11 mode. The conical horn antenna may be used with linear or circular polarization, but in order to illustrate some of the important features, linear polarization will be assumed. The electric field distribution at the horn mouth is sketched in Fig. 6.11 for vertical polarization. The curved field lines can be resolved into vertical and horizontal components as shown. The TEM wave in the far field is linearly polarized, but the horizontal components of the aperture field give rise to cross-polarized waves in the far-field region. Because of the symmetry, the cross-polarized waves cancel in the principal planes (the E and H planes); however, they produce four peaks, one in each quadrant around the main lobe. Referring to Fig. 6.5, the cross-polarized fields peak in the 45 planes. The peaks are about 19 dB relative to the peak of the main (copolar) lobe (Olver, 1992). The smooth-walled horn does not produce a symmetrical main beam, even though the horn itself is symmetrical. The radiation patterns are complicated functions of the horn dimensions. Details will be found in Chang (1989), where it is shown that the beamwidths in the principal planes can differ widely. This lack of symmetry is a disadvantage where global coverage is required. By operating a conical horn in what is termed a hybrid mode, which is a nonlinear combination of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes, the pattern symmetry is improved, the crosspolarization is reduced, and a more efficient main beam is produced with low sidelobes. It is especially important to reduce the cross-polarization where frequency reuse is employed, as described in Sec. 5.2. One method of achieving a hybrid mode is to corrugate the inside wall of the horn, thus giving rise to the corrugated horn antenna. The cross section of a corrugated horn is shown in Fig. 6.12a. The aperture electric field is shown in Fig. 6.12b, where it is seen to have a much lower cross-polarized component. This field distribution is sometimes referred to as a scalar field and the horn as a scalar horn. A development of the scalar horn is the scalar feed, Fig. 6.13, which can be seen on most
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Aperture field in a smooth-walled conical horn.
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(b) Figure 6.12
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(a) Cross section of a corrugated horn. (Courtesy of Alver, 1992.) (b) Aperture field.
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domestic receiving systems. Here, the flare angle of the horn is 90 , and the corrugations are in the form of a flange surrounding the circular waveguide. The corrugated horn is obviously more difficult to make than the smooth-walled version, and close manufacturing tolerances must be maintained, especially in machining the slots or corrugations, all of which contribute to increased costs. A comprehensive description of the corrugated horn will be found in Olver (1992), and design details will be found in Chang (1989). A hybrid mode also can be created by including a dielectric rod along the axis of the smooth-walled horn, this being referred to as a dielectricrod-loaded antenna (see Miya, 1981). A multimode horn is one which is excited by a linear combination of transverse electric and transverse magnetic fields, the most common type being the dual-mode horn, which combines the TE11 and TM11 modes. The advantages of the dual-mode horn are similar to those of
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A scalar feed.
the hybrid-mode horn, that is, better main lobe symmetry, lower crosspolarization, and a more efficient main beam with low sidelobes. Dualmode horns have been installed aboard various satellites (see Miya, 1981). Horns which are required to provide earth coverage from geostationary satellites must maintain low cross-polarization and high gain over a cone angle of 9 . This is achieved more simply and economically with dual-mode horns (Hwang, 1992).
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