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Input demultiplexer. (Courtesy of CCIR, CCIR Fixed Satellite Services Handbook, final draft 1984.)
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Typical diagram of the relative levels in a transponder. (Courtesy of CCIR, CCIR Fixed Satellite Services Handbook, final draft 1984.)
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Figure 7.17 Schematic of a TWT and power supplies. (Courtesy of Hughes TWT and TWTA Handbook; courtesy of Hughes Aircraft Company, Electron Dynamics Division, Torrance, CA.)
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used in ground stations, the magnetic field can be provided by means of a solenoid and dc power supply. The comparatively large size and high power consumption of solenoids make them unsuitable for use aboard satellites, and lower-power TWTs are used which employ permanentmagnet focusing. The rf signal to be amplified is coupled into the helix at the end nearest the cathode and sets up a traveling wave along the helix. The electric field of the wave will have a component along the axis of the helix. In some regions, this field will decelerate the electrons in the beam, and in others it will accelerate them so that electron bunching occurs along the beam. The average beam velocity, which is determined by the dc potential on the tube collector, is kept slightly greater than the phase velocity of the wave along the helix. Under these conditions, an energy transfer takes place, kinetic energy in the beam being converted to potential energy in the wave. The wave actually will travel around the helical path at close to the speed of light, but it is the axial component of wave velocity which interacts with the electron beam. This component is less than the velocity of light approximately in the ratio of helix pitch to circumference. Because of this effective reduction in phase velocity, the helix is referred to as a slowwave structure. The advantage of the TWT over other types of tube amplifiers is that it can provide amplification over a very wide bandwidth. Input levels to the TWT must be carefully controlled, however, to minimize the effects of certain forms of distortion. The worst of these result from the nonlinear transfer characteristic of the TWT, illustrated in Fig. 7.18.
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Figure 7.18 Power transfer characteristics of a TWT. The saturation point is used as 0-dB reference for both input and output.
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At low-input powers, the output-input power relationship is linear; that is, a given decibel change in input power will produce the same decibel change in output power. At higher power inputs, the output power saturates, the point of maximum power output being known as the saturation point. The saturation point is a very convenient reference point, and input and output quantities are usually referred to it. The linear region of the TWT is defined as the region bound by the thermal noise limit at the low end and by what is termed the 1-dB compression point at the upper end. This is the point where the actual transfer curve drops 1 dB below the extrapolated straight line, as shown in Fig. 7.18. The selection of the operating point on the transfer characteristic will be considered in more detail shortly, but first the phase characteristics will be described. The absolute time delay between input and output signals at a fixed input level is generally not significant. However, at higher input levels, where more of the beam energy is converted to output power, the average beam velocity is reduced, and therefore, the delay time is increased. Since phase delay is directly proportional to time delay, this results in a phase shift which varies with input level. Denoting the phase shift at saturation by S and in general by , the phase difference relative to saturation is S. This is plotted in Fig. 7.19 as a function of input power. Thus, if the input signal power level changes, phase modulation will result, this being termed AM/PM conversion. The slope of the phase shift characteristic gives the phase modulation coefficient, in degrees per decibel. The curve of the slope as a function of input power is also sketched in Fig. 7.19. Frequency modulation (FM) is usually employed in analog satellite communications circuits. However, unwanted amplitude modulation (AM) can occur from the filtering which takes place prior to the TWT input. The AM process converts the unwanted amplitude modulation to phase modulation (PM), which appears as noise on the FM carrier.
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Phase characteristics for a TWT. is the input-to-output phase shift, and S is the value at saturation. The AM/PM curve is derived from the slope of the phase shift curve.
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