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Block diagram showing a home terminal for DBS TV/FM reception.
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8.2.1 The outdoor unit
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This consists of a receiving antenna feeding directly into a low-noise amplifier/converter combination. A parabolic reflector is generally used, with the receiving horn mounted at the focus. A common design is to have the focus directly in front of the reflector, but for better interference rejection, an offset feed may be used as shown.
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Huck and Day (1979) have shown that satisfactory reception can be achieved with reflector diameters in the range 0.6 to 1.6 m (1.97 5.25 ft), and the two nominal sizes often quoted are 0.9 m (2.95 ft) and 1.2 m (3.94 ft). By contrast, the reflector diameter for 4-GHz reception can range from 1.83 m (6 ft) to 3 m (10 ft). As noted in Sec. 2 6.13, the gain of a parabolic dish is proportional to (D/l) . Comparing the gain of a 3-m dish at 4 GHz with a 1-m dish at 12 GHz, the ratio D/l equals 40 in each case, so the gains will be about equal. Although the free-space losses are much higher at 12 GHz compared with 4 GHz, as described in Chap. 12, a higher-gain receiving antenna is not needed because the DBS operate at a much higher EIRP, as shown in Table 1.4. The downlink frequency band of 12.2 to 12.7 GHz spans a range of 500 MHz, which accommodates 32 TV/FM channels, each of which is 24-MHz wide. Obviously, some overlap occurs between channels, but these are alternately polarized left-hand circular (LHC) and right-hand circular (RHC) or vertical/horizontal, to reduce interference to acceptable levels. This is referred to as polarization interleaving. A polarizer that may be switched to the desired polarization from the indoor control unit is required at the receiving horn. The receiving horn feeds into a low-noise converter (LNC) or possibly a combination unit consisting of a low-noise amplifier (LNA) followed by a converter. The combination is referred to as an LNB, for low-noise block. The LNB provides gain for the broadband 12-GHz signal and then converts the signal to a lower frequency range so that a low-cost coaxial cable can be used as feeder to the indoor unit. The standard frequency range of this downconverted signal is 950 to 1450 MHz, as shown in Fig. 8.1. The coaxial cable, or an auxiliary wire pair, is used to carry dc power to the outdoor unit. Polarization-switching control wires are also required. The low-noise amplification must be provided at the cable input in order to maintain a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio. An LNA at the indoor end of the cable would be of little use, because it would also amplify the cable thermal noise. Single-to-noise ratio is discussed in more detail in Sec. 12.5. Of course, having to mount the LNB outside means that it must be able to operate over a wide range of climatic conditions, and homeowners may have to contend with the added problems of vandalism and theft.
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8.2.2 The indoor unit for analog (FM) TV
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The signal fed to the indoor unit is normally a wideband signal covering the range 950 to 1450 MHz. This is amplified and passed to a tracking filter which selects the desired channel, as shown in Fig. 8.1.
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As previously mentioned, polarization interleaving is used, and only half the 32 channels will be present at the input of the indoor unit for any one setting of the antenna polarizer. This eases the job of the tracking filter, since alternate channels are well separated in frequency. The selected channel is again downconverted, this time from the 950to 1450-MHz range to a fixed intermediate frequency, usually 70 MHz although other values in the very high frequency (VHF) range are also used. The 70-MHz amplifier amplifies the signal up to the levels required for demodulation. A major difference between DBS TV and conventional TV is that with DBS, frequency modulation is used, whereas with conventional TV, amplitude modulation in the form of vestigial single sideband (VSSB) is used. The 70-MHz, FM intermediate frequency (IF) carrier therefore must be demodulated, and the baseband information used to generate a VSSB signal which is fed into one of the VHF/UHF channels of a standard TV set. A DBS receiver provides a number of functions not shown on the simplified block diagram of Fig. 8.1. The demodulated video and audio signals are usually made available at output jacks. Also, as described in Sec. 13.3, an energy-dispersal waveform is applied to the satellite carrier to reduce interference, and this waveform has to be removed in the DBS receiver. Terminals also may be provided for the insertion of IF filters to reduce interference from terrestrial TV networks, and a descrambler also may be necessary for the reception of some programs. The indoor unit for digital TV is described in Chap. 16.
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8.3 Master Antenna TV System A master antenna TV (MATV) system is used to provide reception of DBS TV/FM channels to a small group of users, for example, to the tenants in an apartment building. It consists of a single outdoor unit (antenna and LNA/C) feeding a number of indoor units, as shown in Fig. 8.2. It is basically similar to the home system already described, but with each user having access to all the channels independently of the other users. The advantage is that only one outdoor unit is required, but as shown, separate LNA/Cs and feeder cables are required for each sense of polarization. Compared with the singleuser system, a larger antenna is also required (2- to 3-m diameter) in order to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio at all the indoor units. Where more than a few subscribers are involved, the distribution system used is similar to the community antenna (CATV) system described in the following section.
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