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Figure 9.8 (a) Conventional analog TV broadcasting of the video and aural signals; (b) generation of a satellite uplink signal for analog TV.
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As mentioned previously, three color TV systems NTSC, PAL, and SECAM are in widespread use. In addition, different countries use different line frequencies (determined by the frequency of the domestic power supply) and different numbers of lines per scan. Broadcasting between countries utilizing different standards requires the use of a converter. Transmission takes place using the standards of the country originating the broadcast, and conversion to the standards of the receiving country takes place at the receiving station. The conversion may take place through optical image processing or by conversion of the electronic signal format. The latter can be further subdivided into analog and digital techniques. The digital converter, referred to as
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digital intercontinental conversion equipment (DICE), is favored because of its good performance and lower cost (see Miya, 1981). 9.6 Frequency Modulation The analog signals discussed in the previous sections are transferred to the microwave carrier by means of FM. Instead of being done in one step, as shown in Fig. 9.8b, this modulation usually takes place at an intermediate frequency, as shown in Fig. 8.6. This signal is then frequency multiplied up to the required uplink microwave frequency. In the receive branch of Fig. 8.6, the incoming (downlink) FM microwave signal is downconverted to an intermediate frequency, and the baseband signal is recovered from the intermediate frequency (IF) carrier in the demodulator. The actual baseband video signal is now available directly via a low-pass filter, but the audio channels must each undergo an additional step of FM demodulation to recover the baseband audio signals. A major advantage associated with FM is the improvement in the postdetection signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver output compared with other analog modulation methods. This improvement can be attributed to three factors: 1. Amplitude limiting 2. A property of FM which allows an exchange between signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth 3. A noise reduction inherent in the way noise phase modulates a carrier These factors are discussed in more detail in the following sections. Figure 9.9 shows the basic circuit blocks of an FM receiver. The receiver noise, including that from the antenna, can be lumped into one equivalent noise source at the receiver input, as described in Sec. 12.5. It is emphasized at this point that thermal-like noise only is being considered, the main characteristic of which is that the spectral density of the noise power is constant, as given by Eq. (12.15). This is referred to as a flat spectrum. (This type of noise is also referred to as white noise in analogy to white light, which contains a uniform spectrum of colors.) Both the signal spectrum and the noise spectrum are converted to the
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Elements of an FM receiver. Figures shown in parentheses are typical.
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intermediate frequency bands, with the bandwidth of the IF stage determining the total noise power at the input to the demodulator. The IF bandwidth has to be wide enough to accommodate the FM signal, as described in Sec. 9.6.2, but should be no wider.
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9.6.1 Limiters
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The total thermal noise referred to the receiver input modulates the incoming carrier in amplitude and in phase. The rf limiter circuit (often referred to as an instantaneous or hard limiter) following the IF amplifier removes the amplitude modulation, leaving only the phase-modulation component of the noise. The limiter is an amplifier designed to operate as a class A amplifier for small signals. With large signals, positive excursions are limited by the saturation characteristics of the transistor (which is operated at a low collector voltage), and negative excursions generate a self-bias which drives the transistor into cutoff. Although the signal is severely distorted by this action, a tuned circuit in the output selects the FM carrier and its sidebands from the distorted signal spectrum, and thus the constant amplitude characteristic of the FM signal is restored. This is the amplitude-limiting improvement referred to previously. Only the noise phase modulation contributes to the noise at the output of the demodulator. Amplitude limiting is also effective in reducing the interference produced by impulse-type noise, such as that generated by certain types of electrical machinery. Noise of this nature may be picked up by the antenna and superimposed as large amplitude excursions on the carrier, which the limiter removes. Limiting also can greatly alleviate the interference caused by other, weaker signals which occur within the IF bandwidth. When the limiter is either saturated or cut off by the larger signal, the weaker signal has no effect. This is known as limiter capture (see Young, 1990).
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