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the bit rate would be 56 kb/s. Various data reduction schemes are in use which give much greater reductions, and some of these can achieve bit rates as low as 2400 b/s (Hassanein et al., 1989 and 1992). 10.4 Time-Division Multiplexing A number of signals in binary digital form can be transmitted through a common channel by interleaving the pulses in time, this being referred to as time-division multiplexing (TDM). For speech signals, a separate codec may be used for each voice channel, the outputs from these being combined to form a TDM baseband signal, as shown in Fig. 10.6. At the baseband level in the receiver, the TDM signal is demultiplexed, the PCM signals being routed to separate codecs for decoding. In satellite systems, the TDM waveform is used to modulate the carrier wave, as described later. The time-division multiplexed signal format is best described with reference to the widely used Bell T1 system. The signal format is illustrated in Fig. 10.7a. Each PCM word contains 8 bits, and a frame contains 24 PCM channels. In addition, a periodic frame synchronizing signal must be transmitted, and this is achieved by inserting a bit from the frame synchronizing codeword at the beginning of every frame. At the receiver, a special detector termed a correlator is used to detect the frame synchronizing codeword in the bit stream, which enables the frame timing to be established. The total number of bits in a frame is therefore 24 8 1 193. Now, as established earlier, the sampling frequency for voice is 8 kHz, and so the interval between PCM words for a given channel is 1/8000 125 s. For example, the leading bit in the PCM codewords
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for a given channel must be separated in time by no more than 125 s. As can be seen from Fig. 10.7a, this is also the frame period, and therefore, the bit rate for the T1 system is Rb 193 10 1.544 Mb/s (10.7)
Signaling information is also carried as part of the digital stream. Signaling refers to such data as number dialed, busy signals, and billing information. Signaling can take place at a lower bit rate, and in the T1 system, the eighth bit for every channel, in every sixth frame, is replaced by a signaling bit. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.7b. The time separation between signaling bits is 6 125 s 750 s, and the signaling bit rate is therefore 1/(750 s) 1.333 kb/s.
10.5 Bandwidth Requirements In a satellite transmission system, the baseband signal is modulated onto a carrier for transmission. Filtering of the signals takes place at a number of stages. The baseband signal itself is band-limited by filtering to prevent the generation of excessive sidebands in the modulation process. The modulated signal undergoes bandpass filtering (BPF) as part of the amplification process in the transmitter.
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Where transmission lines form the channel, the frequency response of the lines also must be taken into account. With a satellite link, the main channel is the radiofrequency path, which has little effect on the frequency spectrum but does introduce a propagation delay which must be taken into account. At the receive end, bandpass filtering of the incoming signal is necessary to limit the noise which is introduced at this stage. Thus the signal passes through a number of filtering stages, and the effect of these on the digital waveform must be taken into account. The spectrum of the output pulse at the receiver is determined by the spectrum of the input pulse Vi(f ), the transmit filter response HT (f ), the channel frequency response HCH(f ), and the receiver filter response HR(f ). These are shown in Fig. 10.8. Thus V( f ) Vi( f )HT ( f )HCH( f )HR( f ) (10.8)
Inductive and capacitive elements are an inherent part of the filtering process. These do not dissipate power, but energy is periodically cycled between the magnetic and electric fields and the signal. The time required for this energy exchange results in part of the signal being delayed so that a square pulse entering at the transmitting end may exhibit ringing as it exits at the receiving end. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.9a. Because the information is digitally encoded in the waveform, the distortion apparent in the pulse shape is not important as long as the receiver can distinguish the binary 1 pulse from the binary 0 pulse. This requires the waveform to be sampled at the correct instants in order to determine its polarity. With a continuous waveform, the tails which result from the ringing of all the preceding pulses can combine to interfere with the particular pulse being sampled. This is known as intersymbol interference (ISI), and it can be severe enough to produce an error in the detected signal polarity. The ringing cannot be removed, but the pulses can be shaped such that the sampling of a given pulse occurs when the tails are at zero crossover points. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.9b, where two tails are shown overlapping the pulse being sampled. In practice, perfect pulse shaping cannot be achieved, so some ISI occurs, but it can be reduced to negligible proportions. The pulse shaping is carried out by controlling the spectrum of the received pulse as given by Eq. (10.8). One theoretical model for the
Vi(f) HT(f) HCH(f) HR(f) V(f)
Frequency spectrum components of Eq. (10.8).
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