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10.12. Explain what is meant by coherent detection as used for the demodulation of PSK bandpass signals. An envelope detector is an example of a noncoherent detector. Can such a detector be used for BPSK Give reasons for your answer. 10.13. Explain how a QPSK signal can be represented by two BPSK signals. Show that the bandwidth required for QPSK signal is one-half that required for a BPSK signal operating at the same data rate. 10.14. The input data rate on a satellite circuit is 1.544 Mbps. Calculate the bandwidths required for BPSK modulation and for QPSK modulation, given that raised-cosine filtering is used with a rolloff factor of 0.2 in each case. 10.15. A QPSK system operates at a [Eb/N0] ratio of 8 dB. Determine the bit error rate. 10.16. A BPSK system operates at a [Eb/N0] ratio of 16 dB. Determine the bit error rate. 10.17. The received power in a satellite digital communications link is 0.5 pW. The carrier is BPSK modulated at a bit rate of 1.544 Mb/s. If the noise power density at the receiver is 0.5 10 19 J, determine the bit error rate. 10.18. The received [C/N0] ratio in a digital satellite communications link is 86.5 dBHz, and the data bit rate is 50 Mb/s. Calculate the [Eb /N0] ratio and the BER for the link. 10.19. For the link specified in Prob. 10.18, the [C/N0] ratio is improved to 87.5 dBHz. Determine the new BER.
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Bellamy, J. 1982. Digital Telephony. Wiley, New York. Franks, L. E. 1980. Carrier and Bit Synchronization in Data Communication: A Tutorial Review. IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 28, No. 8, August, pp. 1107 1120. Gagliardi, R. M. 1991. Satellite Communications, 2d ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Hassanein, H., A. B. Amour, and K. Bryden. 1992. A Hybrid Multiband Excitation Coder for Low Bit Rates. Department of Communications, Communications Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Hassanein, H., A. B. Amour, K. Bryden, and R. Deguire. 1989. Implementation of a 4800 bps Code-Excited Linear Predictive Coder on a Single TMS320C25 Chip. Department of Communications, Communications Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pratt, T., and C. W. Bostian. 1986. Satellite Communications. Wiley, New York. Roddy, D., and J. Coolen. 1994. Electronic Communications, 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Taub, H., and D. L. Schilling. 1986. Principles of Communications Systems, 2d ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
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11.1 Introduction As shown by Fig. 10.17, the probability of bit error (Pe) in a digital transmission can be reduced by increasing [Eb/N0], but there are practical limits to this approach. Equation (10.24) shows that for a given bit rate Rb, [Eb/N0] is directly proportional to [C/N0]. An increase in [C/N0] can be achieved by increasing transmitted power and/or reducing the system noise temperature (to reduce N0). Both these measures are limited by cost and, in the case of the onboard satellite equipment, size. In practical terms, a probability of bit error (Pe of Eq. 10.18) of about 10 4, which is satisfactory for voice transmissions, can be achieved with off theshelf equipment. For lower Pe values such as required for some data, error control coding must be used. Error control performs two functions, error detection and error correction. Most codes can perform both functions, but not necessarily together. In general, a code is capable of detecting more errors than it can correct. Where error detection only is employed, the receiver can request a repeat transmission (a technique referred to as automatic repeat request, or ARQ). This is only of limited use in satellite communications because of the long transmission delay time associated with geostationary satellites, and of course radio and TV broadcast is essentially one-way so ARQ cannot be employed. What is termed forward error correction (FEC) allows errors to be corrected without the need for retransmission, but this is more difficult and costly to implement than ARQ. A Pe value of 10 4 represents an average error rate of 1 bit in 104, and the error performance is sometimes specified as the bit error rate (BER). It should be recognized, however, that the probability of bit error Pe occurs as a result of noise at the input to the receiver, while the BER is the actual error rate at the output of the detector. When error control
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