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CHAPTER 5: Keynesian Approach to Equilibrium Output
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umn 6 by the absence of production shortages or surpluses. At output levels below \$800 billion there is a shortage of output (aggregate spending is greater than production), while at output levels greater than \$800 billion there is surplus production. The income-expenditure approach to output can be presented graphically beginning with the linear consumption function and the 45 line encountered in 4. Adding investment spending and net exports shifts the linear consumption function upward to the aggregate spending line (C + I + Xn). Aggregate spending equals output at only one level of output, determined by the intersection of the 45 line and the aggregate spending line. It can be shown that increases (upward shifts) or decreases (downward shifts) of aggregate spending increase or decrease the economy s equilibrium level of output. Example 5.1 The equilibrium level of output can be found algebraically by equating output and aggregate spending. Suppose the equation for the linear consumption function is C = \$70 + 0.8Y; I is \$120 and Xn = 0. Equilibrium output is found by solving Y = C + I + Xn for Y. Y = C + I + Xn Y = \$70 + 0.8Y + \$120 + 0 Y 0.8Y = \$70 + \$120 + 0 0.2Y = \$190 Y = \$190.2 = \$950
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Leakage-Injection Model of Equilibrium Output
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The leakage-injection model of equilibrium output focuses on saving and gross imports as leakages from the circular ow and on investment and gross exports as spending injections. Leakages depress aggregate spending, while injections increase aggregate spending. For example, spending on domestic output declines when individuals buy more imported rather than domestically produced commodities. An equilibrium level of output exists in the leakage-injection model when the sum of leakages equals the sum of injections.
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50 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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The paradox of thrift demonstrates that increases or decreases in consumers desire to save, ceteris paribus, affect the economy s output level but not its saving level. Suppose that there are no exports or imports and that the government neither taxes nor spends. Individuals begin to save more of their income, which is a leakage. If investment does not increase, leakages will not equal injections. However, output will be decreased because individuals are not spending as much with more saving. Since output becomes income to individuals, income will decrease until saving equals investment again, i.e., leakages equal injections. If investment does not change, saving must end up at its initial value. Individuals may be saving a greater percentage of their income, but they have less income. So saving stays the same while output decreases. Saving has hurt the economy, thus the paradox.
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The paradox of thrift explains why it is good for an individual to save, but not necessarily good for the economy in general.
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