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54 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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Figure 5-2 when Y = \$600. Investment spending is \$100, the distance between the consumption line and the aggregate spending line. c. When output is below the equilibrium level of output, investment injections are greater than saving leakages, e.g., saving is \$50 when Y = \$400 while I = \$100. When output is above the equilibrium level of output, investment injections are smaller than saving leakages, e.g., saving is \$150 when Y = \$600 while I = \$100. At equilibrium, saving leakages equal investment injections. Solved Problem 5.3 a. Find the value of the multiplier when MPC = 0.50, 0.75, and 0.80. b. Find the relationship between the multiplier and the MPC. c. Find the change in the equilibrium level of output when there is a \$10 increase in net export spending and the MPC = 0.50, 0.75, and 0.80.
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CHAPTER 5: Keynesian Approach to Equilibrium Output
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Solution: a. When the MPC = 0.50, the value of the multiplier is 2 [k = 1/(1 0.50) = 2]. The multiplier is 4 when the MPC is 0.75 and 5 when it is 0.80. b. The value of the multiplier is directly related to the magnitude of MPC, i.e., the greater the MPC, the larger the value of the multiplier. c. The change in the equilibrium level of output is found by solving the equation Y = k( Xn) for Y. When MPC = 0.50, the change in the equilibrium level of output is +\$20 [ Y = 2(\$10) = \$20]. The change in equilibrium level of output is +\$40 when the MPC = 0.75, and +\$50 when the MPC = 0.80.
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Fiscal Policy
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Level of Output with Government Expenditures or Taxes Discretionary Fiscal Policy Built-In Stabilizers Government De cit and Debt Implementing Fiscal Policy True or False Questions Solved Problems Level of Output with Government Expenditures or Taxes
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Taxes reduce personal disposable income and therefore consumption and aggregate spending, whereas government expenditures increase aggregate spending. The in uence of government expenditures and of taxes upon aggregate spending is shown in Figure 6-1 in the shift of aggregate spending line (C + I + X n + G). An increase in net lump-sum tax revenues, ceteris paribus, shifts the aggregate spending line downward to (C + I + X n + G) , since higher taxes reduce consumer disposable income and therefore consumer spending at each level of output. An increase in gov-
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CHAPTER 6: Fiscal Policy
ernment spending, ceteris paribus, shifts the aggregate spending line upward to (C + I + X n + G) . It therefore follows that the government can alter the economy s equilibrium level of output by changing its expenditures or net tax revenues. Such government actions are classi ed as discretionary scal policy.
Discretionary Fiscal Policy
Discretionary scal policy involves intentional changes in government spending and/or net tax revenues in order to alter the level of aggregate spending. We have already found that an increase in government spending and/or a decrease in lump-sum taxes shifts the aggregate spending line upward and raises the equilibrium level of output, while a decrease in government spending and/or an increase in lump-sum taxes shifts the aggregate spending line downward and lowers the equilibrium level of output. The government can use discretionary scal actions (changing government spending and/or lump-sum taxes) to eliminate an in ationary or recessionary gap.
Figure 6-1
58 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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In the real world, the government may change its spending and taxing policies for economic reasons or for purely political reasons.
A discretionary scal action has a multiplier effect upon the equilibrium level of output. The size of the multiplier depends upon whether there is a change in government spending, or in net lump-sum tax revenues, and there is an income tax. The value for the multiplier for the change in government spending is Y/ G, while the value of the multiplier for the change in net lump-sum tax revenues is Y/ T. When there is no income tax, a change in government spending has the same multiplier effect [k = 1/(1 MPC)] as does a similar change in investment spending or net exports. The multiplier is smaller for changes in net lumpsum tax revenues; the tax multiplier kt = MPC(k) or MPC/(1 MPC) is for an economy with no income tax. An income tax reduces the value of both the expenditure and the lump-sum tax revenue multiplier since the amount of taxes paid to government is directly related to income earned. For example, when the income tax rate is 20 percent and personal income increases \$10, tax payments to the government rise \$2 and personal disposable income increases \$8 rather than \$10. Thus, an increase in personal income results in smaller increments in induced consumption, and therefore results in a smaller multiplied effect. When there is an income tax, the equation for the expenditure multiplier is k = 1/[1 MPC + MPC(t)], where t is the income tax rate. The equation for the lump-sum tax multiplier is kt = MPC(k) or MPC/[1 MPC + MPC(t)].