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The Fed supplies the private sector with whatever amount of currency it wants to hold thus, the currency component of the M1 money supply is determined by the private sector. Monetary tools available to the Fed include changes in the reserve requirement, open-market operations that control the amount of reserves held by banks, and adjusting the discount rate, which may in uence the amount of reserves banks borrow from Federal Reserve Banks. Reserve-Requirement Variation. A decrease in the reserve require-
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CHAPTER 7: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
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ment on check-writing deposits (monetary ease) creates excess reserves and increases the amount of check-writing deposits issued by banks. Similarly, an increase in the reserve requirement (monetary tightness) decreases the check-writing component of M1. While reserve-requirement variation is a powerful means of changing the M1 money supply, it is used infrequently. Monetary ease or tightness is usually done incrementally. Weekly or monthly changes in the reserve requirement are abrupt and would create management problems for the large number of banks that exist in the U.S. Open-Market Operations. Open-market operations consist of the purchase and sale of government securities (debt obligations of the U.S. Treasury) by the Fed and are directed by the FOMC. When the Fed purchases government securities, it pays for these bonds by crediting the deposit account banks have at a Federal Reserve Bank. Since reserves include these deposits, such security purchases increase bank reserves and eventually the amount of check-writing deposits issued by banks. Federal Reserve sales of government bonds reduce bank reserves and checkwriting deposits, and thereby the M1 money supply. Discount Rate. A bank may borrow reserves (discount) from a Federal Reserve Bank when it has a reserve de ciency; the rate of interest it pays the Fed is the discount rate. Banks are encouraged to remedy a de ciency by borrowing the excess reserves of other banks in the Fed funds market rather than borrow at the Fed. So, the Fed frequently changes the discount rate after an increase or decrease in the Fed funds rate to encourage this practice. A discount rate change is newsworthy in that it con rms the direction of the movement in the Fed funds rate of interest and interest rates in general.
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Open-market operations are the primary tool of the Fed and are used practically daily to accomplish the Fed s goals.
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A change in the M1 money supply affects the short-term rate of interest when there is no change in the private sector s demand for money. There
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70 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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are numerous reasons why the private sector holds money balances. These reasons can be categorized into types of demand, as follows: (1) a transaction demand, since money is needed to purchase goods and services, to pay employees, etc.; (2) a precautionary demand, since money may be held to meet emergency and unforeseen needs that may arise; (3) a portfolio (asset) demand, since some money balances are held in the expectation of opportunities in the nancial markets. When there is a xed demand for money, an increase in the M1 money supply lowers the shortterm nominal rate of interest, ceteris paribus. Example 7.2 L in Figure 7-1 depicts the demand for money. The amount of money demanded is inversely related to the rate of interest since the holder of money forgoes a higher interest return from an alternative nancial asset. When the Fed purchases government securities in the open market, bank reserves increase as does the M1 money supply. Thus, money supply curve S in Figure 7-1 shifts rightward to S as the M1 money supply increases and the short-term rate of interest falls from i0 to i1.
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Figure 7-1
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