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CHAPTER 7: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
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The downward pressure on short-term interest rates due to an increase in the money supply is also evident when we consider the effect that an increase in bank reserves has upon bank lending. In purchasing government securities and supplying more reserves to the banking system, the Fed increases the supply of excess reserves. Banks can encourage more borrowers to apply for bank loans by lowering their lending rates. Consumer spending on large-ticketed items such as houses and cars is interest-sensitive since individuals are likely to take out loans to pay for major purchases. Business investment purchases of new buildings and equipment is also interest sensitive. Thus, as depicted below, a Fed increase in the money supply should lower the rate of interest, increase interest-sensitive spending, and result in a higher level of spending and gross domestic output. M i total spending gross domestic product
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1. A savings deposit is a medium of exchange. 2. A marketable nancial instrument can be traded on a secondary market. 3. The banking system s ability to issue check-writing deposits is limited by the reserve requirement on checking deposits and the amount of reserves held by the bank. 4. The maximum increase in check-writing deposits is $100,000, ceteris paribus, when the Fed purchases government securities valued at $10,000 and the reserve requirement is 10 percent. 5. When there is a stable demand-for-money curve, a decrease in the M1 money supply lowers the short-term nominal rate of interest. 6. Bank reserves increase and the fed funds rate decreases when the Fed purchases government securities, ceteris paribus. Answers: 1. False; 2. True; 3. True; 4. True; 5. False; 6. True
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Solved Problem 7.1. a. Why are check-writing deposits included in the de nition of money
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72 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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b. Is there backing for coins, paper currency, and check-writing deposits c. How can money have value without commodity backing Solution: a. In most cases, one can pay for the purchase of a good or service with cash or by writing a check. Since checks are accepted as payment, they are classi ed as money along with coins and paper currency. b. In the U.S., coins, paper currency, and checking accounts have no intrinsic value. While coins have a metallic content, the market value of the coined material is considerably less than the face (monetary) value of the coin. Paper currency is issued by the Fed and has no commodity backing, while check-writing deposits are noncollateralized liabilities of deposit institutions. c. Anything has value when its supply is limited and demand is virtually unlimited. The basis for value for an inconvertible paper standard (coins, paper currency, and checking accounts) is that government can and is willing to limit its supply, economic units are willing to receive it in payment for services, and spending units can use it to obtain goods and services. Solved Problem 7.2 Why are nancial intermediaries essential to the ef cient operation of the economy Solution: An economic system is judged ef cient when it achieves maximum use of economic resources and maximum satisfaction of consumer wants. Financial instruments and institutions generate ef ciency in the following ways: a. The nancial system increases consumer satisfaction by facilitating the allocation of spending over time. It allows some units to spend more than their current income (dissave) and allows other spending units to increase their future spending level by earning interest on the money they have saved. b. The creation of safe and liquid nancial claims by nancial intermediaries reduces the likelihood that some savers will hold money balances idle. By rechanneling savings into the circular ow, spending ows are stabilized. This in turn stabilizes employment and economic activity. c. Financial instruments encourage savers to lend their savings to those who want to spend more than their current money in ow. A large
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