how to print barcode in crystal report using vb.net 7: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy in Java

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CHAPTER 7: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy
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portion of the funds borrowed from savers is used by business rms to add to the economy s capital stock. This increases productive capacity. d. Since the pro t motive guides the operation of nancial institutions, money saving is distributed to those capital uses that have the greatest productivity. Solved Problem 7.3 Suppose the banking system holds no excess reserves. a. What is the maximum amount of check-writing deposits issued by the banking system when reserves total $1,000 and the reserve requirement is (1) 0.20, (2) 0.16, and (3) 0.10 b. Find the maximum amount of check-writing deposits when the reserve requirement is 0.20 and reserves total (1) $1,000, (2) $1,250, and (3) $2,000. c. Compare the quantity of check-writing deposits when reserves are held constant and the reserve requirement is lowered in (a) with the quantity of deposits when the amount of reserves held by banks is increased and the reserve requirement remains constant in b. Solution: a. The maximum amount of check-writing deposits is found by solving Dmax = R/r. (1) Dmax is $5,000 (Dmax = $1,000/0.20); (2) $6,250; and (3) $10,000. b. When the reserve requirement remains at 0.20 and bank reserves increase from $1,000 to $1,250 to $2,000, check-writing deposits increase from (1) $5,000 to (2) $6,250 to (3) $10,000. c. The situations in a. and b. show that the Fed has two alternative ways of bringing about similar increases in the amount of check-writing deposits; by lowering the reserve requirement or by increasing the amount of reserves held by the banking system.
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Monetary and Fiscal Policy
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Using Monetary and Fiscal Policy Problems with Fiscal and Monetary Policy Price Level Changes Choosing Fiscal or Monetary Policy True or False Questions Solved Problems Using Monetary and Fiscal Policy
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Previous chapters have shown that monetary and scal policies are alternative ways of changing aggregate spending to close GDP gaps. For example, if output is below its full-employment level, an increase in the money supply, an increase in government spending, or a decrease in taxes raises aggregate spending and increases equilibrium output. Example 8.1 Suppose the expenditure multiplier ke is 5, the tax multiplier kt is 4, and full-employment output exists at $900. If equilibrium output is $800, shifting the aggregate spending line upward can close the $100 recession-
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CHAPTER 8: Monetary and Fiscal Policy ary gap and bring the economy to full-employment output. This could be accomplished by a $20 increase in government spending [ Y = ke G; $100 = 5($20)], a $25 decrease in lump-sum taxes, or an increase in the money supply which lowers interest rates and increases investment spending $20.
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Problems with Fiscal and Monetary Policy
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An expansionary scal policy might not result in an increase in output exactly equal to ke G because of the crowding-out effect. Government spending increases, which raise the level of output, will usually push the rate of interest higher. Private-sector interest-sensitive spending will thereby fall and be crowded out by the scal action. Thus, the net increase in equilibrium output due to increased government spending is usually less than ke G. How much less depends upon the interest sensitivity of the demand for money and the interest sensitivity of investment spending. Example 8.2 Suppose ke is 5, full-employment output exists when output is $900, and equilibrium output is initially $800. A $20 increase in government spending, ceteris paribus, should increase spending $100 and bring output to its full-employment level. But suppose the rate of interest increases as a result of the $20 increase in government spending and investment spending declines $5. The net effect of the government s scal action is then $75 rather than $100, and full-employment output is not reached. The net effect equals G(ke) + I(ke) = $20(5) $5(5) = $75. Since policymakers do not know in advance the extent to which there will be crowding out, the effect of a stimulative scal policy upon output is uncertain.
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