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CHAPTER 14: Monopoly
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government franchise and are subject to government regulation. A monopoly may also arise because a rm may own a patent which precludes other rms from producing the same commodity. Under pure monopoly, the rm is the industry and faces the negatively sloped industry demand curve for the commodity. As a result, if the monopolist wants to sell more of the commodity, it must lower its price. Thus, for a monopolist, MR is less than P, and its MR curve lies below its demand curve.
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A monopoly is opposite of perfect competition in every facet of its organization.
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Pro t Maximization
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The pro t-maximizing or best level of output for the monopolist is the output at which MR = MC. Price is then read off the demand curve. Depending on the level of AC at this output, the monopolist can have profits, break even, or minimize the short-run total losses. Example 14.1 From Table 14.1, the monopolist maximizes total pro ts at $3.75 when it produces and sells 2.5 units of output at the price of $5.50. At this output, MR = MC = $3. As long as MR > MC, the monopolist will expand output and sales because doing so adds more to TR than to TC (and pro ts Table 14.1
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120 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
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Figure 14-1 rise). The opposite is true when MR < MC. Thus total pro ts are maximized where MR = MC. The pro t-maximizing or best level of output for this monopolist can also be seen in Figure 14-1 (obtained by plotting the value of columns 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 of Table 14.1). In this gure, the best level of output is at the point where MR = MC. At this best output level of 2.5 units, the monopolist makes a pro t of $1.50 per unit (the vertical distance between D and AC at 2.5 units of output) and $3.75 in total (2.5 units times the $1.50 pro t per unit). Note that since P > MR where MR = MC, the rising portion of the MC curve above the AVC does not represent the monopolist supply curve. In the long run, the monopolist can adjust the scale of plant, and pro ts may persist because of blocked or restricted entry.
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Even though organized completely differently from a perfect competitor, a monopolist still maximizes pro t where MR = MC.
CHAPTER 14: Monopoly
Price Discrimination
A monopolist can increase TR and pro ts at a given level of output and TC by practicing price discrimination. This involves charging different prices for the commodity for different quantities purchased, to different classes of consumers, or in different markets. For example, a telephone company may charge individuals 15 cents for each of the rst 50 telephone calls made during each month, 10 cents for each of the next 100 calls, and so on. Electrical companies usually charge less per kilowatt-hour to industrial users than to households because industrial users have more substitutes available (such as generating their own electricity) and thus have a more elastic demand curve than households.
Regulation of Monopoly
Since a monopoly produces output where MR = MC and P > MR, the monopolist produces less and charges a higher price than a perfect competitor with the same cost curves. For example, if Figure 14-1 was for a perfectly competitive industry, output would be 3 units and price $5 (given where P = MC), rather than Q = 2.5 and P = $5.50 for the monopolist. Thus, monopoly leads to a misallocation of resources. For ef ciency considerations, government (federal, state, or local) often allows natural monopolies (such as public utilities) to operate but subjects them to regulation. This usually takes the form of setting a price that allows the monopolist to earn the normal or fair return of about 8 10 percent on its investment. However, such regulation only partly corrects the more serious problem of misallocation of resources.
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