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Example 4.5 A Test Driver for the max() Function
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This function returns the larger of the two values passed to it: A return statement is like a break statement. It is a jump int max(int x, int y) { statement that jumps out of the function that contains it. return x<y y:x; Although usually found at the end of the function, a return } statement may be put anywhere that any other statement main ( ) { could appear within a function. int m,n; do cin >>m >>n; cout <<max(m,n) <<endl; } while (m!=0); }
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Function Declarations and Definitions The last two examples define a function in a program with the complete definition of the function listed above the main program. Another, more common arrangement is to list only the function's header above the main program, and then list the function's complete definition (header and body) below the main program. A function declaration or prototype is its header, followed by a semicolon. The definition is the complete function: header and body. Like a variable declaration, a function declaration must appear above any use of its name. However, the function definition, when listed separately from the declaration, may appear anywhere outside the main ( ) function and is usually listed after it or in a separate file.
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You Need to Know A function declaration is like a variable declaration. It provides the compiler with information needed to compile the rest of the file. The compiler doesn't need to know how the function works. It only needs the function's name, the number and types of its parameters, and its return type. This is the information contained in the function's header.
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The variables that are listed in a parameter list are called formal parameters or formal arguments. They are local variables that exist only during the execution of the function. Their listing in the parameter list declares them. In Ex. 4.5, the formal parameters are x and y. The variables that are listed in the function's calls are called the actual parameters or actual arguments. Like any other variable in the main program, they must be declared before they are used in the call. In Ex. 4.5, the actual parameters are m and n. In these examples, the actual parameters are passed by value. This means that their values are assigned to the function's corresponding formal parameters. So in the previous example, the value of m is assigned to x and the value of n is assigned to y. When passed by value, actual parameters may be constants or expressions. For example, the max ( ) function could be called by max (44, 5*m-n). This would assign the value 44 to x and the value of the expression 5 *m-n to y. Example 4.6 max() FunctionSeparate Declaration and Definition This is the same test driver as Ex. 4.5. The function's declaration appears above the main program and its definition follows it: int max(int, int); // test driver for the max function: void main ( ) { int m, n; do { cin >>m >>n; cout <<max(m,n) <<endl; } while (m != 0); } // returns the larger of the two given integers: int max(int x, int y) { if (x < y) return y; else return x; } Notice that the formal parameters, x and y, are listed in the header in the definition (as usual) but not in the declaration. There is not much difference between a function declaration and a variable declaration, especially if the function has no parameters. For example, in a program that processes strings, you might need a variable named length to store the length of a string. However, a reasonable alternative would be to have a function that computes the length of the string
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