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Its sole purpose is to interchange the two objects that are passed to it. This is accomplished by declaring the formal parameters x and y as reference variables: float& x, float& y. The reference operator & makes x and y synonyms for the actual parameters. When a call swap(a,b) executes, the function creates its local references x and y so that x is an alias for a, and y is an alias for b. Then the local variable temp is declared and initialized with the value of a, a is assigned the value of b, and b is assigned the value of temp. The compiler will accept float& x, float &x, float & x, or even float&x. It's a matter of taste. Example 4.12 Passing by Value and Passing by Reference This shows the difference between passing by value and by reference. void f(int x, int& y) { x=88; y=99 } main ( ) { int a=22, b=33; cout <<"a = " <<a <<" b = " << b << endl; f (a,b); cout <<"a = " <<a <<" b = " << b << endl; } The call f (a,b) passes a by value to x and b by reference to y. So x is a local variable which is assigned a's value of 22, while y is an alias for the variable b whose value is 33. The function assigns 88 to x, but that has no effect on a. When it assigns 99 to y, it is really assigning 99 to b. Thus, when the function terminates, a still has its original value 22, while b has the new value 99. The actual parameter a is read-only, while the actual parameter b is read-write.
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Table 4.3 Passing by Value versus Passing by Reference Passing by Value int x; Formal parameter x is local variable. A duplicate of the actual parameter. Cannot change the actual parameter. Passing by Reference int &x; Formal parameter x is local reference. A synonym for actual parameter. Can change the actual parameter.
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Actual parameter may be constant, variable, or expression. Actual parameter must be variable. Actual parameter is read-only. Actual parameter is read-write.
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A common situation where reference parameters are needed is where the function has to return more than one value. It can only return one value directly with a return statement. So if more than one value must be returned, reference parameters can do the job. Passing by Constant Reference There are two good reasons for passing a parameter by reference. If the function has to change the value of the actual parameter, as the swap ( ) function did, then it must be passed by reference. If the actual parameter takes up a lot of storage space (e.g., a one-megabyte graphics image), then it is more efficient to pass it by reference to prevent it from being duplicated. However, this also allows the function to change the value of the actual parameter. If you don't want the function to change its contents, C++ provides a third alternative: passing by constant reference. It works the same way as passing by reference, except that the function cannot change the parameter value. The effect is that the function has access to the actual parameter by means of its alias, but the value of parameter may not be changed during the execution of the function. A parameter that is passed by value is called "read-only" because it cannot change the contents of that parameter.
Consider the function: void f(int x, int& y, const int& z) The first parameter is by value, the second parameter is by reference, and the third parameter is by constant reference.
Passing parameters by constant reference is used to process large objects, such as arrays and class instances that are described in later chapters. Objects of fundamental types (int, float, etc.) are usually passed by value (not modifiable) or by reference (modifiable).
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