vb.net code to generate barcode LINKED DATA STRUCTURES in Java

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The next node is added to the end of the list at line 3. To do that, we have to assign it to the next field of the node that contains 33. But the only node to which we have external access (i.e., the only node that has a variable name) is the first node. Its name is start. So we have to use the expression start.next.next to refer to the next field of the node that contains 33. Similarly, the fourth node is added at line 4 using the expression start.next.next.next, and the fifth node is added at line 5 using the expression start.next.next.next.next. That finally gives us the five-node list shown in Figure 3.13.
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The code in Example 3.4 is clumsy and unsuited for generalization. Obviously, if we wanted to build a linked list of 50 nodes, this approach would be unworkable. The solution is to use a local reference variable that can walk through the list, locating one node after the Figure 3.13 The five-node list other and thereby giving local access to the nodes. Traditionally, the variable p (for pointer ) is used for this purpose. Since it will refer to individual nodes, it should be declared to be a Node reference, like this:
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Node p;
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And since our only access to the nodes is from the start node, we should initialize p like this:
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Node p=start;
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This is shown in Figure 3.14. Then the assignment
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p = p.next;
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will advance the locator variable p to the next node, as shown in Figure 3.15. This same assignment can thus be executed as many times as is needed to advance through the linked list.
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Figure 3.14 Initializing p at the start node
Figure 3.15 Advancing p to the second node
Example 3.5 shows how we could have used this technique to build the linked list in the first place. EXAMPLE 3.5 Constructing a Linked List
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start = new Node(22); Node p=start; p.next = new Node(33); p = p.next;
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LINKED DATA STRUCTURES
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p.next = new Node(44); p = p.next; p.next = new Node(55); p = p.next; p.next = new Node(66);
This code may not seem much better than the other version in Example 3.4. But one big advange is that it is easily managed within a loop. For example, the same list can be built with the three lines of code in Example 3.6.
EXAMPLE 3.6 Using a for Loop
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Node start = new Node(22), p = start; for (int i=0; i<4; i++) { p = p.next = new Node(33+11*i); }
Obviously, this form could just as easily build a linked list of 50 nodes. Each step in the execution of this code is shown in Figure 3.16.The reference variable p is analogous to an array index i: It
advances through the nodes of a linked list just as i advances through the elements of an array. Consequently, it is natural to use p in a for loop, just as we would use the array index i. For example, compare Example 3.7 with Example 3.8.
Figure 3.16 Trace of Example 3.6
LINKED DATA STRUCTURES
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EXAMPLE 3.7 Using a for Loop to Print a Linked List
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for (Node p = start; p != null; p = p.next) { System.out.println(p.data); }
EXAMPLE 3.8 Using a for Loop to Print an Array
for (int i=0; i < n; i++) { System.out.println(a[i]); 3 } In both listings, the for loop prints one element on each iteration. The for statement has a three-part control mechanism. The first part declares the control variable (p for the list, i for the array) and initializes
it to the first element:
Node p=start int i=0
The second part gives the continuation condition, asserting that there are more elements:
p != null i < n
The third part gives the update expression, advancing the control variable to the next element:
p = p.next i++
In each of these parts, the two versions are analogous.
Example 3.9 shows a test driver for a simple external Node class. EXAMPLE 3.9 Testing the Node Class
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public class TestNode { public static void main(String[] args) { Node start = new Node(22); Node p = start; for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { p = p.next = new Node(22 + 11*i); } for (p = start; p != null; p = p.next) { System.out.println(p.data); } for (p = start; p != null; p = p.next) { System.out.println(p); } } } class Node { int data; Node next; Node(int data) { this.data = data; } }
The output is:
22 33 44 55 66
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