vb.net code to generate barcode Figure 3.18 Invoking the two-argument Node constructor in Java

Encoder EAN13 in Java Figure 3.18 Invoking the two-argument Node constructor

Figure 3.18 Invoking the two-argument Node constructor
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The insertion has two steps: (1) find the list node p that should precede the new node; (2) create and attach the new node.
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EXAMPLE 3.11 Inserting into a Nonempty Sorted Linked List of Integers
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void insert(Node start, int x) { // PRECONDITIONS: the list is in ascending order, and x > start.data; 3 // POSTCONDITIONS: the list is in ascending order, and it contains x; 4 Node p = start; 5 while (p.next != null) { 6 if (p.next.data > x) break; 7 p = p.next; 8 } 9 p.next = new Node(x,p.next); 10 } The first step is done by the loop at lines 5 8. The variable p is declared at line 4 to be a reference to Node objects. It is initialized to point to the start node, which contains 22 in Figure 3.19. The loop control condition (p.next != null) at line 5 will allow the loop to iterate until p points to the last element in the
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will be null, stopping the loop. But inside the loop, at line 6, the condition will stop the loop prematurely, before p reaches any nodes that should come after the new node. This is how the list remains in ascending order: New elements are always inserted between the elements that are less than it and those that are greater than it. The assignment p = p.next at line 7 is the standard mechanism for traversing a linked list. On each iteration of the while loop, this assignment moves p to point to the next node in the list. The actual insertion is done by the statement at line 9. The expression new Node(x,p.next) creates the new node and initializes its two fields, as we saw previously in Figure 3.18. In that version, it assigned the new node s reference to q. The statement at line 7 assigns it to p.next instead. This changes the next pointer of the p node (the node containing 44): it was pointing to the node containing 55; now it points to the new node that contains 50. list. At that point,
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p.next (p.next.data > x)
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CHAP. 3]
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LINKED DATA STRUCTURES
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Figure 3.19 Inserting into a nonempty sorted linked list
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Figure 3.20 Inserting the new node in three steps
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This second stage of the insertion could be done by several separate statements, like this:
Node q = new Node(x); q.next = p.next; p.next = q;
These separate steps are illustrated Figure 3.20. Once we understand this process, we might as well use the power of Java and write it in the single statement
p.next = new Node(x, p.next);
without the clutter of the extra variable q.
Figure 3.21 Inserting 20 incorrectly
LINKED DATA STRUCTURES
[CHAP. 3
INSERTING AT THE FRONT OF THE LIST The insert() method in Example 3.11 on page 56 includes the extra precondition that x be greater than the first element in the list (start.data). To see why that precondition is needed, look at what the method would do if x were 20 instead of 50. In that case, the break condition at line 6 would be true on the first iteration of the while loop, leaving p pointing at the start node when the new node gets inserted at line 9. The result, as shown in Figure 3.22 Inserting 20 correctly Figure 3.21 on page 57, is that 20 gets inserted between 22 and 33, instead of where it belongs at the front of the list. The problem is that we lack a node to precede the new one. One way to solve this problem is to restructure the linked list itself so that it maintains a dummy head node that precedes the first real data node. This uses a little extra space, but it allows the insert() method in Example 3.11 to work for all cases. The other solution is to modify the insert() method in Example 3.11 so that it handles this special case separately. This is done in Example 3.12 and illustrated in Figure 3.22. There are two situations in which the insert should be done at the front of the list: if the list is empty or if the new element is less than the first element of the list. Both conditions are handled at line 4. In the first case, we could simply reset start to a new node containing x, like this:
start = new Node(x);
using the one-arg constructor. In the second case, we also have to assign the new node to start, but we also have to connect it to the rest of the list. But the only reference we have to the beginning of the list is start itself, so we would have to hold that reference in a temporary variable before reassigning start to the new node. EXAMPLE 3.12 Linked List Insertion
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Node insert(Node start, int x) { // precondition: the list is in ascending order; // postconditions: the list is in ascending order, and it contains x; if (start == null || start.data > x) { start = new Node(x,start); return start; } Node p=start; while (p.next != null) { if (p.next.data > x) break; p = p.next; } p.next = new Node(x,p.next); return start; }
Using the two-argument constructor obviates the need for that extra temporary assignment:
start = new Node(x,start);
Moreover, it also handles the first case, where the list was empty, because in that case, start is null, and passing null to the second parameter is equivalent to using the one-arg constructor:
CHAP. 3]
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