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THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
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The Set interface specifies the same 15 methods that the Collection interface specifies. (See Figure 4.2 on page 71.) The only difference is that the contract further stipulates that implementing classes are obliged to ensure that duplicate elements cannot be added to the collection. The AbstractSet class implements the equals() method, the hashCode() method, and the removeAll() method, designating the other 12 methods as abstract. This means that the concrete EnumSet, HashSet, and TreeSet classes have their own specialized implementations of those 12 methods. The HashSet class gets its name from the fact that collections of this type maintain no order among their elements; they are all mixed up, like hash. EXAMPLE 4.1 Testing the HashSet Class
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This example tests 10 of the 15 methods of the HashSet class.
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public class TestHashSet { public static void main(String[] args) { Set<String> set = new HashSet<String>(); System.out.printf("set.isEmpty(): %b%n", set.isEmpty()); Collections.addAll(set, "CN", "FR", "GB", "RU", "US"); System.out.println(set); System.out.printf("set.size(): %d%n", set.size()); System.out.printf("set.contains(\"GB\"): %b%n", set.contains("GB")); System.out.printf("set.contains(\"JP\"): %b%n", set.contains("JP")); System.out.printf("set.isEmpty(): %b%n", set.isEmpty()); set.add("BR"); System.out.println(set); set.remove("FR"); System.out.println(set); String[] array = set.toArray(new String[0]); for (String string : array) { System.out.printf("%s ", string); } System.out.println(""); Set<String> g8 = new HashSet<String>(); Collections.addAll(g8, "CA", "DE", "FR", "GB", "IT", "JP", "RU", "US"); System.out.println(g8); g8.retainAll(set); System.out.println(g8); set.removeAll(g8); System.out.println(set); set.addAll(g8); System.out.println(set); set.clear(); System.out.println(set); } }
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set.isEmpty(): true [FR, US, RU, GB, CN] set.size(): 5 set.contains("GB"): true set.contains("JP"): false set.isEmpty(): false [FR, US, RU, BR, GB, CN] [US, RU, BR, GB, CN] US RU BR GB CN
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[JP, [US, [BR, [US, []
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FR, US, RU, GB, DE, IT, CA] RU, GB] CN] RU, BR, GB, CN]
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The set object is instantiated at line 3 as a HashSet of String elements. The isEmpty() method is tested at line 4 and again at line 10. At line 5, the collection is loaded with five elements. This is done by the static addAll() method defined in the java.util.Collections class. Note that the order with which the five elements are printed at line 6 is different from the order with which they were added to the set. This illustrates the hash nature of the set. The size() and contains() methods are tested at lines 7 9. The add() method is tested at line 11, and the remove() method is tested at line 13. At line 15, the one-argument toArray() method is used to generate a String array of the same elements that are in the collection. The for loop at lines 16 18 confirms that the array contains the same elements. Lines 20 21 create and load a second set, named g8. This is then used together with the set collection to test the retainAll(), removeAll(), and addAll() methods at lines 23 28. Finally, the clear() method is tested at line 29.
GENERIC COLLECTIONS The <String> symbol used twice in line 3 of Example 4.1 means that the elements of the collection must be String type:
Set<String> set = new HashSet<String>();
The types Set<String> and HashSet<String> are called parameterized types or generic types. Specifying the element type this way causes the compiler to prevent any non-String objects from being inserted into the collection, making it type-safe. Note that the parametrized type HashSet<String> extends the parametrized type Set<String> because the type HashSet extends the type Set. But HashSet<String> is not an extension of HashSet<Object> or of Set<Object>. The JCF uses type parameters in most of its classes and interfaces. For example, the complete Queue<E> interface is shown in Example 4.2. EXAMPLE 4.2 The Queue Interface
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public interface Queue<E> extends Collection<E> { boolean offer(E o); E poll(); E remove(); E peek(); E element(); }
The expression Queue<E> extends Collection<E> at line 1 means that Queue<E> is a specialized collection of elements of some type E, to be specified later. Whatever type that is, it must also be the type for the parameter o in the offer() method at line 2 and the return type for the other four methods specified at lines 3 6.
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