vb.net code to generate barcode Figure 1.4 An ADT in UML in Java

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Figure 1.4 An ADT in UML
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The harmonic mean of two numbers x and y is the number h defined by the formula h = 2/(1/x + 1/y). In pseudocode for Fraction types, this could be expressed as:
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harmonicMean(x: Fraction, y: Fraction) returns Fraction return x.reciprocal().plus(y.reciprocal()).reciprocal().times(2);
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JAVA INTERFACES In Java, an ADT can be represented by an interface. Recall that a Java interface is just like a Java class, except that it contains no executable code. EXAMPLE 1.3 A Fraction Interface
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public interface Fraction { Fraction plus(Fraction x); Fraction times(int n); Fraction times(Fraction x); Fraction reciprocal(); double value(); }
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This is a direct translation into Java of the ADT specified in Example 1.1.
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If an ADT is translated into Java as an interface, then we can implement algorithms that use it as Java methods.
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EXAMPLE 1.4 A harmonicMean() Method
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public Fraction harmonicMean(Fraction x, Fraction y) { return x.reciprocal().plus(y.reciprocal()).reciprocal().times(2); }
Although the Java code in Example 1.4 cannot be executed, we can compile it.
In Java, an interface is a type. Reference variables may be declared to have an interface type, even if the interface has no implementation. For example, the parameters x and y at line 1 of Example 1.4 are declared to have type Fraction. An interface may represent an ADT, as in Example 1.3. More generally, a Java interface is meant to identify a capability. For example, the Comparable interface requires the implementation of this method:
int compareTo(T type)
This means that any variable declared to have type Comparable can invoke this method, meaning that it is capable of being compared to other objects. CLASSES AND OBJECTS Java is a strongly typed language: Every variable must be declared to have a data type. The various Java types are shown in Figure 1.5. These are categorized as either primitive types or reference types. The eight built-in primitive types are for integers, characters, decimal numbers, and boolean values. Reference types are user-defined, and their variables must be instantiated to hold data. Arrays are reviewed in 2; interfaces are types that cannot be instantiated; enum types are defined by listing all the values that a variable of that type may have. Classes are concrete data types that specify how their state is stored (the class fields) and how their instances behave (the instance methods). A class is defined in a declaration statement with this syntax:
modifers class class-name associations { declarations } where modifers are keywords such as public and abstract, class-name is an identifier such as Person that names the class, associations are clauses such as extends Object, and declarations are declarations of the class s members.
A class can have six kinds of members: 1. Fields that specify the kind of data that the objects hold. 2. Constructors that specify how the objects are to be created. 3. Methods that specify the operations that the objects can perform. 4. Nested classes. 5. Interfaces. 6. Enum type definitions. Each member of a class must be specified in its own declaration statement. The purpose of a declaration is to introduce an identifier to the compiler. It provides all the information that the compiler needs in order to compile statements that use that identifier. A field is a variable that holds data for the object. The simplest kind of field declaration has this syntax:
modifers type name = initializer;
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where modifers and the initializer are optional. For example, the Point class in Example 1.5 declares two fields at lines 2 3. Each has the modifier protected, which means that they are accessible only from within the class itself and from its extensions. A constructor is a subprogram that creates an object. It s like a method with these distinctions: Its name is the same as its class name. It has no return type. It is invoked by the new operator. The simplest kind of constructor declaration has this syntax:
modifers name(param-decls) { statements } Note that a class need not have a main()
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