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STACKS
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public ArrayStack() { elements = (E[]) new Object[INITIAL_CAPACITY]; } public ArrayStack(int capacity) { elements = (E[]) new Object[capacity]; } public boolean isEmpty() { return (size == 0); } public E peek() { if (size == 0) { throw new java.util.EmptyStackException(); } return elements[size-1]; // top of stack } public E pop() { if (size == 0) { throw new java.util.EmptyStackException(); } E element = elements[--size]; elements[size] = null; return element; } public void push(E element) { if (size == elements.length) { resize(); } elements[size++] = element; } public int size() { return size; } private void resize() { assert size == elements.length; Object[] a = new Object[2*size]; System.arraycopy(elements, 0, a, 0, size); elements = (E[])a; } }
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Since this class is implementing the generic type Stack<E>, it too is a generic type. Thus, the type parameter E is used wherever the element type has to be specified. For example, at line 29, the local variable element is declared to have type E. This ArrayStack implementation uses a backing array elements[] to store the stack s elements. It is declared at line 2 to have type E[], that is, an array of elements of type E. The other class field is the integer size, which keeps a count of the number of elements in the stack. The class defines the static constant INITIAL_CAPACITY at line 4 to be the number 100. This is used only to specify the initial size of the backing array at line 7. The choice of 100 is arbitrary; any reasonably small positive integer would suffice.
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STACKS
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Two constructors are defined: the default (no-argument) constructor at line 6 and the one-argument constructor at line 10. Both merely allocate the backing array, using either the default INITIAL_CAPACITY (line 7) or a user-specified capacity (line 11). Notice how arrays are allocated in a generic collection:
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elements = (E[]) new Object[INITIAL_CAPACITY];
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Since generic arrays are not supported in Java, this simpler approach
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elements = new E[INITIAL_CAPACITY]; // ERROR!
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will not compile. Instead, we have to allocate the backing array as an array of Object elements, and then cast that array with (E[]) in order to assign it to the elements field, which has type E[]. This subterfuge may generate a compiler warning, which can be ignored. The implementations of the five methods required by the Stack interface are pretty straightforward. The size() method at line 41 is an accessor method that simply returns the value of the size field. The isEmpty() method at line 14 returns true or false according to whether or not the value of size is 0. The peek() method at line 18 throws an exception if the stack is empty. Otherwise, it returns the top element on the stack: elements[size-1]. The pop() method at line 25 is almost the same as the peek() method. But before returning the top element, it must remove it by decrementing the size field at line 29 and replacing the top element with null at line 30. This last step is done so that no references will be left to an inaccessible object. The push() method at line 34 is essentially the reverse of the pop() method. At line 38, the element is added to the array at the next available position, at elements[size], and then the size counter is postdecremented. If the array is full, then the size counter will equal elements.length. If that condition holds when push() is called, the array is doubled by a call to the private resize() method at line 36. This creates the temporary array a[] at line 47, copies all the elements into it at line 48, and then assigns the elements field to it at line 49. Note the use of the assert statement at line 46. If the condition size == elements.length does not hold at that point, the program will abort with an error message, just like an uncaught exception. Of course, that should never happen, because the resize() method is private, and the only place where it is called within this class is at line 36, inside the if block for that same condition. The purpose of including the assert statement here is merely insurance, to guard against possible future modifications of the class that might inadvertently involve the resize() method when that condition is not true.
The ArrayStack class implemented in Example 5.3 can be tested the same way the Stack class is tested in Example 5.1 on page 103. The push(), peek(), and pop() calls should work the same way. The println() calls cannot be executed for the ArrayStack class because it has no toString() method. But that s proper, because a stack really should not allow access to any of its elements other than the one on top. A LINKED IMPLEMENTATION The main alternative to an indexed implementation is a linked implementation, using a linked list. (See 3.) EXAMPLE 5.4 A LinkedStack Implementation
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public class LinkedStack<E> implements Stack<E> { private Node<E> head = new Node<E>(); // dummy node private int size;
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public boolean isEmpty() { return (size == 0); }
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