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public E peek() { if (size == 0) { throw new java.util.EmptyStackException(); } return head.prev.element; // top of stack } public E pop() { if (size == 0) { throw new java.util.EmptyStackException(); } E element = head.prev.element; head.prev = head.prev.prev; head.prev.next = head; --size; return element; } public void push(E element) { head.prev = head.prev.next = new Node<E>(element, head.prev, head); ++size; } public int size() { return size; } private static class Node<E> { E element; Node<E> prev; Node<E> next; Node() { this.prev = this.next = this; } Node(E element, Node<E> prev, Node<E> next) { this.element = element; this.prev = prev; this.next = next; } } }
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This class implements a doubly linked list, using the private inner Node class defined at lines 36 50. Each node contains an element field and two link fields: one pointed to the previous node in the list and one pointing to the next node. The constructor defined at line 41 constructs a dummy node with null element and with both links pointing to the node itself. The three-argument constructor defined at line 45 allows all three fields to be initialized. The LinkedStack class defines two fields at lines 2 3: its head node link and its size counter. Note that this implements the empty stack as a single dummy node with its prev and next links pointing to the node itself. The advantage of self-pointers is that we avoid null pointers, obviating special cases in the push() and pop() methods.
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When the stack is not empty, the top element will always be in the node referenced by the head.prev link. Thus, both peek() and pop() return head.prev.element. To remove the top element, pop() deletes the node that contains it. This requires resetting two pointers, which is done at lines 21 22:
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head.prev = head.prev.prev; head.prev.prev.next = head; The push() method constructs a new node containing the specified element at line 28, and then it resets both the head.prev.next and the head.prev links to point to it. Note that the chained assignment works from right to left, first assigning the new node reference to head.prev.next and then to head.prev. That order of operations is critical because the existing head.prev.next node is not accessible after head.prev is changed.
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ABSTRACTING THE COMMON CODE The ArrayStack and LinkedStack implementations of the Stack interface are quite different. Nevertheless, they do have some identical code. The size() method and the isEmpty() method are the same. Their implementation does not depend upon whether the backing structure is indexed or linked. When parts of an implementation are independent of the underlying data structure, it is advantageous to implement those parts separately in an abstract class. EXAMPLE 5.5 An AbstractStack Class
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public abstract class AbstractStack<E> implements Stack<E> { protected int size; public boolean isEmpty() { return (size == 0); } abstract public E peek(); abstract public E pop(); abstract public void push(E element); public int size() { return size; } }
The three methods that depend upon the implementation s backing structure are declared abstract (lines 8, 10, and 12). This of course requires the class itself to be declared abstract. Notice at line 2 that the size field is declared protected instead of private so that it can be accessed by the extending concrete classes.
With the AbstractStack class implemented as shown in Example 5.5, we can now simplify the two concrete implementations from Example 5.3 on page 104 and Example 5.4 on page 106. We need only add the expression extends AbstractStack<E> to each class header, and then we can remove their isEmpty() and size() methods and their declaration of the size field. This of course is the strategy used by the JCF. (See Figure 4.1 on page 70.)
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