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The program tests the Ratio class:
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[CHAP. 1
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public class TestRatio { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Ratio.ZERO = " + Ratio.ZERO); System.out.println("Ratio.ZERO.value() = " + Ratio.ZERO.value()); Ratio x = new Ratio(22, 7); System.out.println("x = " + x); System.out.println("x.value() = " + x.value()); System.out.println("x.equals(Ratio.ZERO): " + x.equals(Ratio.ZERO)); Ratio xx = new Ratio(44, 14); System.out.println("xx = " + xx); System.out.println("xx.value() = " + xx.value()); System.out.println("x.equals(xx): " + x.equals(xx)); } }
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Ratio.ZERO = 0/1 Ratio.ZERO.value() = 0.0 x = 22/7 x.value() = 3.142857142857143 x.equals(Ratio.ZERO): false xx = 44/14 xx.value() = 3.142857142857143 x.equals(xx): true
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The Ratio class in Example 1.5 is immutable: its fields cannot be changed. MODIFIERS Modifiers are used in the declaration of class members and local variables. These are summarized in the following tables.
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abstract final public strictfp
Meaning
The class cannot be instantiated. The class cannot be extended. Its members can be accessed from any other class. Floating-point results will be platform-independent. Table 1.1 Modifiers for classes, interfaces, and enums
Modifier
private protected public
Meaning
It is accessible only from within its own class. It is accessible only from within its own class and its extensions. It is accessible from all classes. Table 1.2 Constructor modifiers
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OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
Modifier
final private protected public static transient volatile
Meaning
It must be initialized and cannot be changed. It is accessible only from within its own class. It is accessible only from within its own class and its extensions. It is accessible from all classes. The same storage is used for all instances of the class. It is not part of the persistent state of an object. It may be modified by asynchronous threads. Table 1.3 Field modifiers
Modifier
abstract final native private protected public static strictfp synchronized volatile
Meaning
Its body is absent; to be defined in a subclass. It cannot be overridden in class extensions. Its body is implemented in another programming language. It is accessible only from within its own class. It is accessible only from within its own class and its extensions. It is accessible from all classes. It has no implicit argument. Its floating-point results will be platform-independent. It must be locked before it can be invoked by a thread. It may be modified by asynchronous threads. Table 1.4 Method modifiers
Modifier
final
Meaning
It must be initialized and cannot be changed. Table 1.5 Local variable modifier
The three access modifiers, public, protected, and private, are used to specify where the declared member (class, field, constructor, or method) can be used. If none of these is specified, then the entity has package access, which means that it can be accessed from any class in the same package. The modifier final has three different meanings, depending upon which kind of entity it modifies. If it modifies a class, final means that the class cannot be extended to a subclass. (See 9.) If it modifies a field or a local variable, it means that the variable must be initialized and cannot be changed, that is, it is a constant. If it modifies a method, it means that the method cannot be overridden in any subclass. The modifier static means that the member can be accessed only as an agent of the class itself, as opposed to being bound to a specific object instantiated from the class. For example, the format() method, invoked at line 34 in the Line class in Example 1.5 on page 6 is a static method:
return String.format("%d/%d", num, den);
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
[CHAP. 1
It is bound to the String class itself, accessed as String.format(). On the other hand, the value() method, invoked at line 7 in the test program is a nonstatic method. It is bound to the object x, an instance of the Ratio class, and is accessed x.value(). A static method is also called a class method; a nonstatic method is also called an instance method. The object to which an instance method is bound in an invocation is called its implicit argument for that invocation. For example, the implicit argument in the invocation x.equals(xx) is the object x. (xx is the explicit argument.) Note that every program s main() method is a static method. COMPOSITION, AGGREGATION, AND INHERITANCE There are several different ways to associate one class with another: composition, aggregation, and inheritance. When a class A contains references to instances of a class B and controls all access to those instances, we say that A is a composition of B. For example, a University class would be a composition of Department objects. Each Department object belongs to a unique University object, which controls access to its department. If A is a composition of B, we say that an A object owns a B object. For example, a university owns a department. When a class A contains references to a class B whose instances exist and are accessible outside of A, we say that A is an aggregation of B. For example, in a university software system, a Department class would contain references to Professor objects who are members of the department, but who also exist outside the department. In fact, a professor could be a member of two different departments. If A is an aggregation of B, we say that an A object has a B object. For example, a department has a professor. When a class A includes all the members of a class B, we say that A is an extension of B, and that it inherits all the properties of B. For example, a Professor class would be an extension of a Person objects. If A is an extension of B, we say that an A object is a B object. For example, a professor is a person. Figure 1.6 illustrates how these three class associations are represented in UML. Composition is indicated by a filled diamond head adjacent to the composing class, aggregation is indicated by an empty diamond head adjacent to the aggregating class, and inheritance is indicated by an empty arrow head adjacent to the extended class. EXAMPLE 1.6 Implementing Associations
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public class Person { private final String name; public Person(String name) { this.name = new String(name); }
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