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EXAMPLE 3.14 Accessibility from Nested Classes
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public class Main { private int m = 22; public Main() { Nested nested = new Nested(); System.out.println("Outside of Nested; nested.n = " + nested.n); nested.f(); } public static void main(String[] args) { new Main(); } private class Nested { private int n = 44; private void f() { System.out.println("Inside of Nested; m = " + m); } } }
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The output is:
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Outside of Nested; nested.n = 44 Inside of Nested; m = 22 The main() method invokes the Main() constructor at line 11. That instantiates the Nested class at line 5. The private field n of the Nested class is accessed at line 6, and the private method f() of the Nested class is accessed at line 7. This shows that private members of a nested class are accessible from its enclosing class. Symmetrically, the private members of the enclosing class are accessible from
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within its nested class, as demonstrated by line 18.
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The UML symbol for the nesting of one class inside another uses a circle with a plus sign inside in place of the arrowhead, as shown in Figure 3.25. Since all members of a Figure 3.25 UML diagram for a nested class private nested class are still accessible from anywhere else in the enclosing class, those members are usually declared without any access modifier (private, protected, or public), for simplicity. Normally, a nested class should be declared static unless its instances need to access nonstatic members of its enclosing class. (A nested class that is nonstatic is called an inner class.) The Node class defined in Example 3.10 on page 56 is used only within the context of the linked lists that are being implemented. So it should be nested inside its List class. Moreover, since nodes have no need to access List methods or fields, the Node class should be declared as a static nested class. This is done at line 12 in Example 3.15 and is illustrated in Figure 3.26.
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EXAMPLE 3.15 Nesting the Node Class within a LinkedList Class
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public class LinkedList { private Node start; public void insert(int x) { // Insert lines 2-14 of Example 3.12 on page 58 } public void delete(int x) { // Insert lines 2-18 of Example 3.13 on page 59 } private static class Node { // Insert lines 2-12 of Example 3.10 on page 56 } }
Hiding the Node class within the LinkedList class encapsulates the LinkedList class, making it selfcontained and concealing its implementation details. A developer could change the implementation without having to modify any code outside of that class.
Figure 3.26 A Node class nested within a LinkedList class
Review Questions
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Why is an array such an inefficient data structure for a dynamic sorted list What is an index array If linked lists are so much better than arrays, why are arrays used at all Why does insertion at the front of a linked list have to be done differently from insertion elsewhere Why are the lists backwards in the BigInt class
Problems
3.1 Write and test this method, similar to the insert() method in Example 3.1 on page 46:
void delete(int[] a, int n, int x)
// precondition: 0 <= n < a.length; // postconditions: the first occurrence of x among {a[0], ..., a[n-1]} has been deleted;
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For example, if a[] is the array {33, 55, 77, 99, 77, 55, 33, 0}, then delete(a, 6, 55) will change a[] to {33, 77, 99, 77, 55, 33, 0, 0}. 3.2 Write and test this method:
int size(Node list) // returns: the number of nodes in the specified list; For example, if list is {33, 55, 77, 99}, then size(list) will return 4.
Write and test this method:
int sum(Node list) // returns: the sum of the integers in the specified list; For example, if list is {25, 45, 65, 85}, then sum(list) will return 220.
Write and test this method:
void removeLast(Node list) // precondition: the specified list has at least two nodes; // postcondition: the last node in the list has been deleted; For example, if list is {22, 44, 66, 88}, then removeLast(list) will change it to {22, 44,
66}. 3.5 Write and test this method:
Node copy(Node list) // returns: a new list that is a duplicate of the specified list;
Note that the new list must be completely independent of the specified list. Changing one list should have no effect upon the other. 3.6 Write and test this method:
Node sublist(Node list, int p, int q) // returns: a new list that contains copies of the q-p nodes of the // specified list, starting with node number p (starting with 0); For example, if list is {22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99}, then sublist(list, 2, 7) will
return the new list {44, 55, 66, 77, 88}. Note that the two lists must be completely independent of each other. Changing one list should have no effect upon the other. 3.7 Write and test this method:
void append(Node list1, Node list2) // precondition: list1 has at least one node; // postcondition: list1 has list2 appended to it; For example, if list1 is {22, 33, 44, 55} and list2 is {66, 77, 88, 99}, then append(list1, list2) will change list1 to {22, 33, 44, 55, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88}. Note that
no new nodes are created by this method. 3.8 Write and test this method:
Node concat(Node list1, Node list2) // returns: a new list that contains a copy of list1, followed by // a copy of list2; For example, if list1 is {22, 33, 44, 55} and list2 is {66, 77, 88, 99}, then concat(list1, list2) will return the new list {22, 33, 44, 55, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88}. Note
that the three lists should be completely independent of each other. Changing one list should have no effect upon the others. 3.9 Write and test this method:
void set(Node list, int i, int x) // replaces the value of element number i with x; For example, if list is {22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99}, then set(list, 2, 50) will change list to {22, 33, 50, 55, 66, 44, 88, 99}.
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