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Elements are accessible in their natural order
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Access time is independent of the size n of the collection Elements are stored in random order.
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Table 4.2 Hash tables versus search trees
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class. In practice, the slower access time of the TreeSet class is usually not noticeable, unless the set is really large. For example, if n < 1000, there s really no disadvantage in using the TreeSet class. THE LinkedHashSet CLASS The LinkedHashSet class is the same as the HashSet class, except that it maintains a doubly linked list of the elements in the order in which they are inserted. This overcomes the random ordering of the HashSet class. The only disadvantage is slightly slower insertion and deletion times, which in most cases would be unnoticeable. EXAMPLE 4.9 Testing the LinkedHashSet Class
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public class TestLinkedHashSet { public static void main(String[] args) { Set<String> ital = new LinkedHashSet<String>(); Collections.addAll(ital, "IT", "VA", "SM", "CH"); System.out.println(ital); ital.remove("VA"); System.out.println(ital); ital.add("VA"); System.out.println(ital); } }
The output is:
[IT, VA, SM, CH] [IT, SM, CH] [IT, SM, CH, VA]
This program creates the same ital set as in Example 4.8 on page 82. The output from line 5 confirms that its access order matches the order in which the elements were inserted. The output from line 9 shows that the add() method inserts at the end of the linked list.
THE EnumSet CLASS The EnumSet class is designed for elements of an enum type (enumerated type). For example,
enum Day { SUN, MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT }
If an application uses sets of days, then those sets can be implemented most efficiently as EnumSet objects using an enum type like this. In addition to the 15 methods required by the Set interface, the EnumSet class also implements the 13 additional methods specified in its Javadoc page, shown in Figure 4.8. Notice that each of these methods returns an EnumSet object, and every one except clone() is a static method. These are used to instantiate the sets, like this:
EnumSet<Day> weekdays = EnumSet.range(Day.MON, Day.FRI); EnumSet<Day> weekend = EnumSet.of(Day.SUN, Day.SAT);
THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
[CHAP. 4
Figure 4.8 Specialized methods implemented by the java.util.EnumSet class
EXAMPLE 4.10 Testing the EnumSet Class
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public class TestEnumSet { public static enum Month { JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC }
CHAP. 4]
THE JAVA COLLECTIONS FRAMEWORK
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public static void main(String[] args) { EnumSet<Month> spring = EnumSet.range(Month.MAR, Month.JUN); System.out.println(spring); System.out.println(EnumSet.complementOf(spring)); EnumSet<Month> shortMonths = EnumSet.of(Month.SEP, Month.APR, Month.JUN, Month.NOV, Month.FEB); System.out.println(shortMonths); shortMonths.addAll(spring); System.out.println(shortMonths); } }
The output is:
[MAR, APR, MAY, JUN] [JAN, FEB, JUL, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC] [FEB, APR, JUN, SEP, NOV] [FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, SEP, NOV] The enum type Month is defined at line 3. Variables of that type can have only those 12 specified values (or null). At line 7, the EnumSet spring is instantiated by invoking the static range() method of the EnumSet class. Notice that this method does not adhere to Java s left-continuous policy (see page 82): the resulting set includes both of the specified elements MAR and JUN. The EnumSet class s complementOf() and of() methods are invoked at lines 9 and 11, respectively. These work as described in the Javadoc, shown in Figure 4.8 on page 84. The addAll() method is tested at line 13, producing the union of the shortMonths and spring sets.
THE List INTERFACE A list is a linearly ordered data structure in which every element (except possibly the first) has a predecessor element and every element (except possibly the last) has a successor element. List elements are usually numbered in sequence: x0, x1, x2, . . . The numbers are called indexes or subscripts. Unlike sets, list data structures usually allow duplicate elements. The List interface extends the Collection interface. (See Figure 4.1 on page 70.) In addition to the 15 methods specified by the Collection interface (Figure 4.2 on page 71), the List interface also specifies these 10 additional methods:
voidadd(int index, E element) boolean addAll(int index, Collection< extends E> c) E get(int index) int indexOf(Object o) int lastIndexOf(Object o) ListIterator<E> listIterator() ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) E remove(int index) E set(int index, E element) List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex)
These methods use indexed access into the list. The indexed addAll() method has a second parameter with this generic type:
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