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Figure 4.9 The java.util.ListIterator interface
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The remove() and poll() methods delete and return the element at the front of the queue. The only difference between them is their behavior when the queue is empty: remove() throws a NoSuchElementException, while poll() returns null. The AbstractQueue class implements 5 of the 20 required methods of the Queue interface: add(), addAll(), clear(), element(), and remove(). The purpose of this class (as with all abstract classes) is to serve as a partial implementation, to be completed in a concrete extension by implementing the other required methods. The Javadoc for the AbstractQueue class states: A Queue implementation that extends this class must minimally define a method Queue.offer(E) which does not permit insertion of null elements, along with methods Queue.peek(), Queue.poll(), Collection.size(), and a Collection.iterator() supporting Iterator.remove(). EXAMPLE 4.11 Implementing a LinkedQueue Class
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public class TestQueue { public static void main(String[] args) { Queue<String> queue = new LinkedQueue<String>(); Collections.addAll(queue, "AR", "BO", "CO", "EC"); System.out.println(queue); String firstOut = queue.remove();
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Figure 4.10 Specialized methods specified by the java.util.Queue interface
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System.out.println(queue); System.out.printf("Removed %s%n", firstOut); queue.add("PE"); System.out.println(queue); String secondOut = queue.remove(); System.out.println(queue); System.out.printf("Removed %s%n", secondOut); } } class LinkedQueue<E> extends AbstractQueue<E> implements Queue<E> { private List<E> list = new LinkedList<E>(); public Iterator<E> iterator() { return list.iterator(); } public boolean offer(E e) { if (e == null) { return false; } else { list.add(e); return true; } }
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33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
public E peek() { return list.get(0); } public E poll() { if (list.isEmpty()) { return null; } else { return list.remove(0); } } public int size() { return list.size(); } }
The output is:
[AR, BO, CO, EC] [BO, CO, EC] Removed AR [BO, CO, EC, PE] [CO, EC, PE] Removed BO The LinkedQueue class uses a LinkedList to store its elements at line 18. This is called composition of classes; a LinkedQueue object is composed of a LinkedList object. It allows the composing class s methods to be implemented using the component class s methods. Thus, offer() uses list.add() at line 28, peek() uses list.get() at line 34, poll() uses list.remove() at line 41, and size() uses list.size() at line 46.
The action of the main() method illustrates the FIFO nature of a queue: Insert elements at the back and remove them from the front. Thus, the first in (AR) was the first out (at line 6), and the second in (BO) was the second out (at line 11).
THE PriorityQueue CLASS A priority queue is the same as an ordinary queue except for its removal algorithm: Instead of removing the element that has been in the queue the longest, it removes the element that has the highest priority. This of course, requires its elements to be prioritized. In other words, the elements have to have some ordering mechanism; either a natural order, such as alphabetic order for strings, or an order imposed by a Comparator object. (See page 79.) The PriorityQueue class extends the AbstractQueue class, implementing the Queue interface. To accommodate the priority protocol, it includes a constructor for specifying a Comparator, a constructor for specifying a SortedSet source of elements, and an accessor method for obtaining the elements comparator:
PriorityQueue(int initialCapacity, Comparator< super E> comparator) PriorityQueue(SortedSet< extends E> c) Comparator< super E> comparator() Note that the first of these two constructors requires the collection s initialCapacity to be specified. That is because the PriorityQueue class is implemented with a heap data structure,
which uses an array to store its elements. (See 13.)
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