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method. If it does, it is then an executable program. Otherwise, it merely defines a new type that can be used elsewhere. EXAMPLE 1.5 A Ratio Class
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Reference types Arrays Interfaces Classes Enums Figure 1.5 Java types
public class Ratio { protected int num; protected int den; public static final Ratio ZERO = new Ratio(); private Ratio() { this(0, 1); } public Ratio(int num, int den) { this.num = num; this.den = den; } public boolean equals(Object object) { if (object==this) { return true; } else if (!(object instanceof Ratio)) { return false; } Ratio that = (Ratio)object; return (this.num*that.den == that.num*this.den); } public int getNum() { return num; }
CHAP. 1]
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
public int getDen() { return den; } public String toString() { return String.format("%d/%d", num, den); } public double value() { return (double)num/den; } }
Instances of this class represent fractions, with numerator (num) and denominator (den). The static final field ZERO represents the fraction 0/1. It is defined to be static because it is unique to the class itself there shouldn t be more than one ZERO object. In addition to its three fields, this class has two constructors and four methods. The no-arg constructor (it has no arguments) defined at line 6 is declared private so that it cannot be invoked from outside of its class. It is invoked at line 4 to initialize the ZERO object. This constructor uses the this keyword at line 7 to invoke the two-arg constructor, passing 0 to num and 1 to den. The two-arg constructor at line 10 is provided to the public for constructing Ratio objects with specific num and den values. Note that, to prevent the ZERO object from being duplicated, we could have included this at line11:
if (num == 0) { throw new IllegalArgumentException("Use Ratio.ZERO"); }
But then we would have to replace line 7 with explicit initializations:
num = 0; den = 1;
instead of invoking the two-arg constructor there. The equals() method at line 15 overrides the default equals() method that is defined in the Object class (which all other classes extend). Its purpose is to return true if and only if its explicit argument (object) represents the same thing as its implicit argument (this). It returns true immediately (at line 17) if the two objects are merely different names for the same object. On the other hand, it returns false (at line 19) if the explicit argument is not even the right type. These tests for the two extremes are canonical and should be done first in every equals() method. If they both are passed, then we can recast the explicit argument as an object of the same type as the implicit argument (Ratio) so we can access its fields (num and den). The test for equality of two ratios a/b = c/d is whether a*d = b*c, which is done at line 22. The methods defined at lines 25 and 29 are accessor methods (also called getter methods ) providing public access to the class s private fields. The toString() method at line 33 also overrides the corresponding method that is defined in the Object class. Its purpose is to return a String representation of its implicit argument. It is invoked automatically whenever a reference to an instance of the class appears in an expression where a String object is expected. For example, at line 6 in the test program below, the expression "x = " + x concatenates the string "x = " with the reference x. That reference is replaced by the string "22/7" that is returned by an implicit invocation of the toString() method. Finally, the value() method at line 37 returns a decimal approximation of the numerical value of the ratio. For example, at line 7 in the test program below, x.value() returns the double value 3.142857142857143.
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