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Figure 8.3 The concordance in Example 8.9
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delimiters all of the 11 characters in the string ",.;:()-! '". Each parsed word is used as a key in the hash table. The corresponding value is the string of line numbers that is accumulated at lines 16 and 18. The write() method at line 29 uses a for-each loop to print the concordance to the specified file. At line 32, the map s entrySet() method returns a set of elements of type Map.Entry<String,String>. These are the key/value pairs that are stored in the hash table. Each key is a word from the input file and its entry is the list of the line numbers of the lines where that word appears in the text. Here is the test program:
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public class TestConcordance public static final String public static final String public static final String
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{ PATH = "B:\\DSWJ2\\src\\ch08\\ex09\\"; IN_FILE = "Shakespeare.txt"; OUT_FILE = "Shakespeare.out";
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public static void main(String[] args) { Concordance c = new Concordance(PATH+IN_FILE); c.write(PATH+OUT_FILE); } }
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The output from the program in Example 8.9 demonstrates a critical feature of hash tables: Their contents are not ordered. To obtain an alphabetized printout of the concordance, we would have to sort it. THE TreeMap CLASS The TreeMap class extends the AbstractMap class and implements the SortedMap interface. It is called a tree map because its backing structure is a binary search tree instead of a hash table.
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[CHAP. 8
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Figure 8.4 The ordered concordance in Example 8.10
But it is still a map with key/value entries. As a binary search tree structure, it sacrifices its O(1) access time, but its keys are ordered. EXAMPLE 8.10 An Ordered Concordance
By replacing HashMap with TreeMap at line 2 in the Concordance class of Example 8.9, we obtain an ordered concordance:
private Map<String,String> map = new HashMap<String,String>();
Part of the output from the same test program is shown in Figure 8.4.
Review Questions
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 What is the difference between a table and a vector Why is a table also called a map Why is a table also called an associative array Why is a table also called a dictionary What is a concordance What is a hash table What is the difference between the Java Hashtable class and the Java HashMap class The first two examples showed that the order of insertion into a hash table is irrelevant if there are no collisions. What if there are What are the advantages and disadvantages of quadratic probing compared to linear probing
CHAP. 8]
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8.10 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a HashMap compared to a TreeMap
Problems
8.1 Run a program similar to the one in Example 8.1 on page 149 to insert the following 16 entries into the German-English dictionary:
map.put("Ast","gate"); map.put("Eis","ice"); map.put("Hof","court, yard, farm"); map.put("Hut","hat"); map.put("Lob","praise"); map.put("Mal","mark, signal"); map.put("Mut","courage"); map.put("Ohr","ear"); map.put("Ost","east"); map.put("Rad","wheel"); map.put("Rat","advice, counsel"); map.put("Tag","day"); map.put("Tor","gate"); map.put("Uhr","clock"); map.put("Wal","whale"); map.put("Zug","procession, train");
Modify the Concordance class so that it filters out common words (pronouns, adverbs, etc.) whose listing would not contribute to new insights into the document. Store the common words in a separate file like the one shown in Figure 8.5. Modify the program in Example 8.1 on page 149 so that it stores the words in alphabetical order. Have it load the same data as in Problem 8.1 above and then print the table s contents in alphabetical order. Implement a FrequencyTable class for producing a list of words together with their frequency of occurrence in a specified text file.
Figure 8.5 Words
Answers to Review Questions
8.1 A vector provides direct access to its elements by means of its integer index. A table provides direct access to its elements by means of a key field, which can be of any ordinal type: int, double, string, and so forth. A table is also called a map because, like a mathematical function, it maps each key value into a unique element. A table is also called an associative array because it acts like an array (see Answer 8.1) in which each key value is associated with its unique element. Like a mathematical function, it maps each key value into a unique element. A table is also called a dictionary because it is used the same way as an ordinary natural language dictionary: to look up elements, as one would look up words in a dictionary. A concordance is a list of words that appear in a text document along with the numbers of the lines on which the words appear. (See page 157.)
8.2 8.3
8.4 8.5
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