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Composition Aggregation Inheritance Implementation Table 1.6 UML symbols
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The implementation symbol is used to show that a class implements an interface. EXAMPLE 1.7 Implementing the Comparable Interface
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Change line 1 of Example 1.5 on page 6 to:
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public class Ratio implements Comparable { public int compareTo(Object object) { if (object==this) { return 0; } else if (!(object instanceof Ratio)) { throw new IllegalArgumentException("Ratio type expected"); } Ratio that = (Ratio)object; normalize(this); normalize(that); return (this.num*that.den - that.num*this.den); } private static void normalize(Ratio x) { if (x.num == 0) { // x == Ratio.ZERO x.den = 1; } else if (x.den < 0) { // change sign of num and den: x.num *= -1; x.den *= -1; } }
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and then add these two methods:
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[CHAP. 1
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The Comparable interface requires the compareTo() method, as specified at line 2. The purpose of the method is to indicate whether the implicit argument is less than, equal to, or greater than the explicit argument. The indicator is the sign of the returned integer: Negative indicates that this < object, zero indicates that this = object, and positive indicates that this > object. In the case of ratios a/b and c/d, we can tell whether a/b < c/d by cross-multiplying and checking whether ad < bc. Since that case should be indicated by returning a negative number, we can simply return ad bc. Indeed, the value of that expression will be negative, zero, or positive, when a/b < c/d, a/b = c/d, or a/b > c/d, respectively. However, that arithmetic trick works only if b > 0 and d > 0. To ensure that the denominators are not negative, we employ the static utility method defined at line 14. It ensures that the denominator of its argument is not negative.
Figure 1.7 illustrates how the implementation of an interface is represented in UML. The association symbol is a dashed arrow pointing to the interface. The diagram for the interface marks its name with the stereotype interface . Note that an interface rectangle has only two parts, while a class rectangle has three. This is because interfaces have no fields. Figure 1.7 also illustrates how to represent package membership. The Comparable interface is part of the java.lang package, as indicated by the tab above the interface symbol. POLYMORPHISM
Figure 1.7 Interface implementation in UML
Java is a strongly typed language, which means that every variable must be declared to have a type which determines how that variable can be used. A char cannot be used where a boolean is expected, and a Ratio object cannot be used where a Person object is expected. But there are some situations where a variable of one type can be used where another type is expected. This is called polymorphism (literally, many forms ) because the object appears to have more than one type. There are several kinds of polymorphism. The simplest kind is called inclusion polymorphism. Illustrated in Example 1.8, it refers to the ability of an object to invoke a method that it inherits. EXAMPLE 1.8 Inclusion Polymorphism
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public class TestRatio { public static void main(String[] args) { Ratio x = new Ratio(22, 7); System.out.println("x.hashCode(): " + x.hashCode()); } }
The output is:
x.hashCode(): 1671711
At line 4, the Ratio object x invokes the hashCode() method that it inherits from the Object class.
CHAP. 1]
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
Another kind of polymorphism occurs with generic methods, where an actual type is substituted in for a type parameter. This is illustrated in Example 1.9. EXAMPLE 1.9 Parametric Polymorphism
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public class TestSort { public static void main(String[] args) { String[] countries = {"CN", "IN", "US", "ID", "BR"}; print(countries); Arrays.sort(countries); print(countries); Ratio[] ratios = new Ratio[3]; ratios[0] = new Ratio(22, 7); ratios[1] = new Ratio(25, 8); ratios[2] = new Ratio(28, 9); print(ratios); Arrays.sort(ratios); print(ratios); } static <T> void print(T[] a) { // generic method for (T t : a) { System.out.printf("%s ", t); } System.out.println(); } }
Here is the output:
CN IN US ID BR BR CN ID IN US 22/7 25/8 28/9 28/9 25/8 22/7 The print() method defined at line 16 is a generic method. It uses the type parameter T as a place-
holder for an actual type, which will be determined at run time. When the generic method is invoked at lines 4 and 6, the type String is used in place of T. When it is invoked at lines 11 and 13, the type Ratio is used. This makes the method polymorphic, capable of printing arrays of String objects and arrays of Ratio objects. The program also uses the generic sort() method that is defined in the java.util.Arrays class. It requires the type parameter T to be an extension of the Comparable interface, which both the String class and our Ratio class are.
Inclusion polymorphism and parametric polymorphism are both special cases of universal polymorphism. The other general kind of polymorphism is called ad hoc polymorphism which also has two special kinds, named overloading polymorphism and coercion. These are best illustrated with primitive types. The plus operator (+) is polymorphically overloaded: It means integer addition when used in the form 22 + 33; it means floating point addition when used in the form 2.2 + 3.3; and it means string concatenation when used in the form name + ", Esq.". Coercion occurs when a value of one type is implicitly converted to a value of another type when the context requires that other type. For example, when the compiler evaluates the expression 22 + 3.3, it interprets the plus operator as floating point addition, requiring both operands
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