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FUNCTION GENERATORS AND SIGNAL CONDITIONERS
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Frequently in analog system design, the need arises to modify ampli er gain in various ways, to compare signals with a generated reference, or to limit signals depending on their values. Such circuit applications can often be implemented with the high-input-impedance, low-output-impedance and highgain characteristics of the op amp. The possibilities for op amp circuits are boundless; typically,
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CHAP. 9]
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
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however, nonlinear elements (such as diodes or transistors) are introduced into negative feedback paths, while linear elements are used in the input branches.
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Example 9.10. The signal-conditioning ampli er of Fig. 9-9 changes gain depending upon the polarity of vS . Find the circuit voltage gain for positive vS and for negative vS if diode D2 is ideal.
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Fig. 9-9 If vS > 0, then vo < 0 and D2 is forward-biased and appears as a short circuit. resistance is then RFeq R2 R3 R2 R3 RFeq R2 R3 R1 R1 R2 R3 (9.21) The equivalent feedback The equivalent feedback
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and, by (9.5),
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Av
If vS < 0, then vo > 0 and D2 is reverse-biased and appears as an open circuit. resistance is now RFeq R3 , and Av RFeq R 3 R1 R1
9:22
SPICE OP AMP MODEL
Figure 9-1(a) presents the equivalent circuit model of the op amp using a VCVS to implement the gain. This circuit is easily realized by SPICE methods using the VCVS model of Fig. 1-2 and Table 1-1. It is frequently convenient to describe the op amp through use of a subcircuit as illustrated by the following netlist code:
.SUBCKT OPAMP 1 * Model Inv Rd 1 2 500kohm E 5 4 (1,2) -le5 Ro 5 3 100ohm .ENDS OPAMP 2 Ninv 3 Out 4 Com
The nodes are labeled in Fig. 9-1(a). Input impedance Rd 500 k , output impedance Ro 100  , and open-loop voltage gain AOL 1 105 are typical values that can be changed if an application warrants. Also, SPICE libraries usually contain subcircuit models of commercially available op amps that can be utilized.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
[CHAP. 9
Example 9.11. Use SPICE methods to model the noninverting ampli er of Fig. 9-3 if the op amp has the parameter values of the subcircuit OPAMP above. Let vS 0:5 sin 2000t V; R1 1 k; and R2 10 k. Verify that the voltage gain predicted by (9.7) results. Netlist code describing the circuit is shown below:
Ex9_11.CIR vs 1 0 SIN(0V 0.5V 1kHz) R1 2 0 1kohm R2 3 2 10kohm XA 1 2 3 0 OPAMP .SUBCKT OPAMP 1 2 * Model Inv NInv Rd 1 2 500kohm E 5 4 (1,2) -le5 Ro 5 3 100ohm .ENDS OPAMP .TRAN 1us 2ms .PROBE .END
3 Out
4 Com
Execute hEx9_11.CIRi and use the Probe feature of PSpice to plot Fig. 9-10. By use of the marked values of Fig. 9-10, Av 5:5 11 0:5
Fig. 9-10 The voltage gain predicted by (9.7) is Av 1 Hence, (9.7) is validated. R2 10 103 1 11 R1 1 103
CHAP. 9]
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
Example 9.12. Model the rst-order low-pass lter of Fig. 9-8(a) by SPICE methods where the op amp is characterized by the parameters of subcircuit OPAMP. Let R1 1 k; R 10 k; and C 0:1 F to give a corner frequency fc 1=2 1=2RC 159:1 Hz. Show that the gain magnitude characteristic of Fig. 9-8(b) results. The netlist code that follows describes the circuit where a frequency sweep from 10 Hz to 10 kHz is speci ed to give a reasonable band on either side of the corner frequency fc :
Ex9_12.CIR vs 1 0 AC 1V R1 1 2 1kohm R 2 3 10kohm C 2 3 0.1uF XA 2 0 3 0 OPAMP .SUBCKT OPAMP 1 2 * Model Inv NInv Rd 1 2 500kohm E 5 4 (1,2) -le5 Ro 5 3 100ohm .ENDS OPAMP .AC DEC 200 10Hz 10kHz .PROBE .END
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