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The Zener diode or reference diode, whose symbol is shown in Fig. 2-20(a), nds primary usage as a voltage regulator or reference. The forward conduction characteristic of a Zener diode is much the same as that of a recti er diode; however, it usually operates with a reverse bias, for which its characteristic is radically di erent. Note, in Fig. 2-20(b), that:
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The reverse voltage breakdown is rather sharp. The breakdown voltage can be controlled through the manufacturing process so it has a reasonably predictable value. When a Zener diode is in reverse breakdown, its voltage remains extremely close to the breakdown value while the current varies from rated current IZ to 10 percent or less of rated current.
A Zener regulator should be designed so that iZ ! 0:1IZ to ensure the constancy of vZ .
Example 2.19. Find the voltage vZ across the Zener diode of Fig. 2-20(a) if iZ 10 mA and it is known that VZ 5:6 V, IZ 25 mA, and RZ 10 : Since 0:1IZ iZ IZ , operation is along the safe and predictable region of Zener operation. Consequently, vZ % VZ iZ RZ 5:6 10 10 3 10 5:7 V
RZ is frequently neglected in the design of Zener regulators. technique.
Problem 2.31 illustrates the design
Example 2.20. Back-to-back Zener diodes, as shown between 3,0 of Fig. 2-21(a), are frequently used to clip or remove voltage spikes. SPICE-based analysis programs generally do not o er a speci c model for the Zener diode, but rather the model is implemented by model parameter speci cation of the reverse breakdown voltage (BV) and the associated reverse breakdown current (IBV). For the circuit of Fig. 2-21(a), let vs 10 sin 2000t V and source vp model a disturbance that results in a 10 V spike appearing at the positive crest of vs . Set values for the reverse breakdown voltage of the Zener diodes and assess the e ectiveness of the circuit in clipping the disturbance spike.
Fig. 2-21
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The netlist code describing the circuit follows:
Ex2_20.CIR - Zener diode spike clipper .PARAM f=1kHz T={1/f} vs 1 0 SIN ( 0V 10V {f} ) * Set 10V spike at positive peak of vs vp 2 1 PULSE ( 0V 10V {T/4} {T/100} {T/100} 1us {T} ) R 2 3 1ohm D1 4 3 DMOD ; Zener diode Z1 D2 4 0 DMOD ; Zener diode Z2 RL 3 0 50ohm .MODEL DMOD D( BV=9.3V IBV=1A ) .TRAN 1 us 2ms .PROBE .END
The nal values of BV and IBV shown in the code were determined by trial and error to give acceptable results, knowing that severe avalanche is approximately 1 V beyond the value of BV. Parameter IBV strongly in uences the slope of the diode characteristic in the avalanche region. The plot of Fig. 2-21(b) shows both the voltage vs vp impressed on the circuit and the resulting Zener current as the spike is clipped. Examination of the output voltage vL shows that the spike is clipped so that only a 0.42 V remnant of the original 10 V spike appears across the load resistor RL .
Solved Problems
2.1 At a junction temperature of 258C, over what range of forward voltage drop vD can (2.1) be approximated as iD % Io evD =VT with less than 1 percent error for a Ge diode
From (2.1) with  1, the error will be less than 1 percent if evD =VT > 101. In that range, vD > VT ln 101 kT 1:38 10 23 25 273 ln 101 4:6151 0:1186 V q 1:6 10 19
A Ge diode described by (2.1) is operated at a junction temperature of 278C. For a forward current of 10 mA, vD is found to be 0.3 V. (a) If vD 0:4 V, nd the forward current. (b) Find the reverse saturation current.
(a) We form the ratio iD2 Io evD2 =VT 1 e0:4=0:02587 1 47:73 iD1 Io evD1 =VT 1 e0:3=0:02587 1 iD2 47:73 10 mA 477:3 mA
Then (b) By (2.1),
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