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The common-emitter (CE) connection is a two-port transistor arrangement (widely used because of its high current ampli cation) in which the emitter shares a common point with the input and output terminals. The independent port input variables are base current iB and emitter-to-base voltage vBE , and
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
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iC, mA
iE = 5 mA 4 Active region Saturation region 3 2 1 0
LEB, V
_ 10
LCB, V
Cutoff region (b) (c)
ICEO
Fig. 3-2 Common-base characteristics (pnp, Si device)
the independent port output variables are collector current iC and emitter-to-collector voltage vCE . Like CB analysis, CE analysis is based on: 1. Input or transfer characteristics that relate the port input variables iB and vBE , with vCE held constant. Figure 3-3(a) shows the measurement setup, and Fig. 3-3(b) the resulting input characteristics. Output or collector characteristics that show the functional relationship between port outport variables iC and vCE for constant iB , measured as in Fig. 3-3(a). Typical collector characteristics are displayed in Fig. 3-3(c).
BJT SPICE MODEL
The element speci cation statement for a BJT must explicitly name a model even if the default model parameters are intended for use. The general form of the transistor speci cation statement is as follows: Q n1 n2 n3 model name Nodes n1 ; n2 , and n3 belong to the collector, base, and emitter, respectively. The model name is an arbitrary selection of alpha and numeric characters to uniquely identify the model. Positive current and voltage directions for the pnp and npn transistors are clari ed by Fig. 3-4. In addition, a .MODEL control statement must be added to the netlist code. This control statement speci es whether the transistor is pnp or npn and thus has one of the following two forms:
CHAP. 3]
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
iC C iB A B + V + LCE _
LBE _
E (a) iB
LCE = 0 V LCE 1 V
iC , mA
Saturation region
iB = 80 mA 70 60 50
Active region
40 30 20 10 0 ICBO
LBE, V
Cutoff region (c)
LCE, V
Fig. 3-3 Common-emitter characteristics (npn, Si device)
Fig. 3-4
.MODEL model name PNP (parameters) .MODEL model name NPN (parameters) If the parameter eld is left blank, default values are assigned. Non-default desired parameter speci cations are entered in the parameter eld using the format parameter name value. Speci c parameters that are of concern in this book are documented by Table 3-2. All parameter values are entered with positive values regardless of whether the transistor is pnp or npn. Two transistor models will be used in this chapter generic model and default model as introduced in Example 3.2.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
[CHAP. 3
Table 3-2 Parameter Is Ikf Isc Bf Br Rb Rc Va Cjc Cje Description saturation current high current roll-o base-collector leakage forward current gain reverse current gain base resistance collector resistance forward Early voltage base-collector capacitance base-emitter capacitance Major Impact " Is, # VBEQ # Ikf, # IC " Isc, " IC " Bf, " IC " Br, " rev. IC " Rb, # diB /dvBE " Rc, " VCEsat # Va, " diC =dt high freq. response high freq. response Default 1 10 1 0 100 1 0 0 1 0 0
Units A A A
  V F F
Example 3.2. Use SPICE methods to generate the CE collector characteristics for an npn transistor characterized by (a) the default parameter values and (b) a reasonable set of values for the parameters appearing in Table 3-2. (a) Figure 3-5(a) shows a connection method to obtain data for the collector characteristics. The netlist code that follows will generate the desired data for default parameter values.
Ex3_2.CIR Ib 0 1 0uA Q 2 1 0 QNPN *Q 2 1 0 QNPNG VC 2 0 0V .MODEL QNPN NPN() ; Default BJT *.MODEL QNPNG NPN(Is=10fA Ikf=150mA Isc=10fA Bf=150 *+ Br=3 Rb=1ohm Rc=1ohm Va=30V Cjc=10pF Cje=15pF) .DC VC 0V 15V 1V Ib 0uA 150uA 25uA .PROBE .END
Execute hEx3_2.CIRi and use the Probe feature of PSpice to produce the collector characteristics for the default BJT model (QNPN or QPNP) shown by Fig. 3-5(b).
Fig. 3-5
CHAP. 3]
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