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Introduction to Computer Science
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Definition of Algorithm Example Designing a Staircase Example Finding the Greatest Common Denominator Representing Algorithms with Pseudocode Characterizing Algorithms Analyzing Algorithms Algorithms as Technology Formal Models of Computation Church Turing Thesis Unsolvable Problems Summary Review Questions
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Von Neumann Architecture Data Representation Computer Word Size Integer Data Formats Real Number Formats Character Formats CPU/ALU Instruction Set Memory Input and Output (I/O) Summary Review Questions
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Generations of Languages Compilers and Interpreters
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CONTENTS
Virtual Machines Procedural Programming Object-Oriented Programming Scripting Languages Functional Languages Language Design Language Syntax and Semantics Summary Review Questions
49 49 51 53 56 59 61 64 64
Programming in Java
Introduction Java Types Arrays Java Operators Java Identifiers Basic Control Structures Object-Oriented Programming Classes and Objects Object State and Behavior Inheritance Instance and Static Variables and Methods Polymorphism Interfaces Error Handling Input and Output Scanner PrintWriter Summary Review Questions
66 66 69 70 71 71 77 78 78 79 79 83 84 85 88 91 92 93 93
Operating Systems
Capabilities of the Hardware Operating Systems History Single-user OS Network OS Multiprocessor Operating Systems Real-Time Operating Systems Embedded Systems Management of Input and Output Processes and Scheduling Threads Synchronization Semaphores Monitors Deadlock Scheduling Memory Management Memory Management with Multiprogramming Timesharing and Swapping Virtual Memory
95 97 98 98 99 99 99 101 102 103 106 108 111 114 116 116 117 118
CONTENTS
File Systems Summary Review Questions
122 124 125
Networking
Introduction Reference Model Subnet (Data-Link) Layer Internet (Network) Layer Protocol End-to-end (Transport) Layer Protocol Application Layer Putting It All Together The World Wide Web, HTTP, and HTML Summary Review Questions
127 128 130 131 132 133 133 134 137 138
Database
The Ubiquitous Database Database Types Advantages of Using a Database Modeling the Data Domain Building a Relational Database from the Data Model Normalization SQL Structured Query Language DDL Data Definition Language DML Data Manipulation Language Stored Procedures Triggers Data Integrity Transaction Isolation Levels Accessing the Database Programmatically Summary Review Questions
139 139 140 140 144 145 147 148 150 157 159 160 161 162 165 166
Social Issues
Ethics Theories Intellectual Property Privacy Encryption Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses Hackers Can Computers Kill Summary Review Questions
169 170 174 175 175 176 177 178 179
APPENDIX
Answers to Review Questions Index
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SCHAUM S OUTLINE OF
Principles of
COMPUTER SCIENCE
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Introduction to Computer Science
WHAT IS COMPUTER SCIENCE Computer Science is defined in different ways by different authors. Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Computer_science) defines computer science as the collection of a variety of disciplines related to computing, both theoretical and practical: theoretical foundations of information and computation, language theory, algorithm analysis and development, implementation of computing systems, computer graphics, databases, data communications, etc. The US National Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) defines computer science in a similarly broad way:
the systematic study of computing systems and computation. The body of knowledge resulting from this discipline contains theories for understanding computing systems and methods; design methodology, algorithms, and tools; methods for the testing of concepts; methods of analysis and verification; and knowledge representation and implementation. (http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/bluebooks/1995/section.5.html)
Another broad definition comes from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Model Curriculum. It says that computer science is the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their hardware and software design, their applications, and their impact on society. A famous definition of computer science by Gibbs and Tucker (Gibbs and Tucker, A Model Curriculum for a Liberal Arts Degree in Computer Science, Comm. of the ACM, vol. 29, no. 3, March 1986) emphasizes algorithm development and analysis as the central focus of computer science. It s also a fair question to ask, How is computer science a science In contrast to physics, biology, and chemistry, computer science is not based on the study of the natural world. In that sense, computer science is more like mathematics than science. Some argue that computer science is really computer art (where art means practice). On the other hand, computer scientists do use the scientific method to propose and test hypotheses, and some very nonobvious discoveries in computer science have important real-world implications. An example, which we will discuss later, is the discovery that some important problems simply cannot be solved by computation. Despite many variations, essentially all definitions of computer science emphasize the study of algorithms. Algorithms, in one form or another, are central to computer science. Computer science combines the theoretical concepts of algorithm design and analysis with the practical considerations of how to implement algorithms on a computer and solve practical problems.
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