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Figure 8-5 3NF.
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Now the original Student relation has been broken into three relations, each with a single theme one records information about students, one records information about dorms, and one records information about faculty members who act as advisors. In a more complete implementation, one would choose better key values for the Student and Faculty relations. Perhaps one would choose some sort of ID number instead of relying on a name and hoping one never has to deal with the possibility of including two John Smiths in the database. A Faculty relation likely would also have additional attributes, such as office address, salary, etc. Boyce Codd normal form (BCNF) is a refinement of 3NF. A relation is in BCNF if every determinant in the relation is a candidate key. A candidate key is a valid choice for the key of the relation. Suppose in our example that room numbers in different dorms were different, such that the value of the room number itself determined which dorm the student was in (room numbers less than 100 were in Arthur Dorm, for instance, and room numbers between 100 and 199 were in Brooks Dorm). Room would then be a determinant, but it obviously would not be a candidate key, so the Student relation would not be in BCNF. To put the Student relation in BCNF, we would have to create a new Room relation in which dorm room number was the key and Dorm was a nonkey attribute. Normal forms exist at even higher levels. In ascending order, the forms are fourth normal form, fifth normal form, and domain key normal form. In day-to-day work with databases, one is less likely to focus on these higher forms, so this chapter will end its discussion of normalization with BCNF. The important guide to remember is that each relation should embrace a single theme, a single topic. SQL STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE IBM first brought SQL to database processing. It is a high-level language for creating databases, manipulating data, and retrieving sets of data. SQL is a nonprocedural language that is, SQL statements describe the data and operations of interest, but do not specify in detail how the underlying database system is to satisfy the request.
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ANSI standards for SQL were published in 1986, 1989, 1992, 1999, and 2003. In practice, different database vendors offer SQL with small differences in syntax and semantics. For any particular vendor, most SQL statements will conform to the standard, and there will also be numerous small differences. As a result, one must always supplement knowledge of standard SQL with information specific to the database vendor one is using. The desktop reference SQL in a Nutshell by Kevin Kline (2004) finds it necessary, for example, to include separate sections for ANSI Standard, DB2 (IBM), MySQL (open source), Oracle, and SQL Server (Microsoft) varieties of the standard. SQL statements are often distinguished as being part of the data definition language (DDL) or the data manipulation language (DML). DDL statements create database structures like tables, views, triggers, and procedures. DML statements insert data, update data, retrieve data, or delete data in the database. SQL is not case sensitive. Commands and names may be entered in uppercase or lowercase. However, some people have a style preference for using uppercase and lowercase letters to segregate SQL key words from database names. DDL DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE The first DDL statement to learn is CREATE. The CREATE TABLE command is the means by which to create a relation. In SQL, a relation is called a table, a tuple is called a row, and an attribute is called a column. Here is the syntax for the CREATE TABLE statement: CREATE TABLE <table_name> ( <column_name> <dataType> <attributes> [,<column_name> <dataType> <attributes>] [CONSTRAINT [<constraintName>] <constraintType> [,CONSTRAINT [<constraintName>] <constraintType>]] ); This syntax specification says that the statement must begin with CREATE TABLE followed by your choice of table name (shown between the less-than and greater-than brackets). Following the table name, you must type an open parenthesis, followed by one or more sets of specifications for the name of each column, the data type of each column, and attributes of each column (such as allowing nulls or not). After the list of column names, you may optionally provide one or more table constraints by typing CONSTRAINT, an optional constraint name, and a constraint type (such as PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE values). Finally, you must type a close parenthesis and a semicolon. The database designer is free to specify any name for a table, column, or constraint. The SQL standard specifies rules for names, but each database vendor has its own rules that vary somewhat from the standard. For instance, the SQL2003 standard says that names may be up to 128 characters long, but MySQL limits the designer to 64 characters, and Oracle limits the designer to 30 characters. The data types for SQL also vary with the vendor of the database management system. In general, these types are available:
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Integer Number/Numeric (decimal floating point) Varchar (variable length character strings) Date/DateTime Char (character string of fixed length)
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You must consult the documentation for your DBMS to determine correct choices for data types. The most common attributes one specifies for columns are NOT NULL, DEFAULT, and CONSTRAINT. The NOT NULL attribute requires a value for that column for every row that one adds to the table. By default, a column may contain a null value. The DEFAULT attribute allows one to provide an expression that will create a value for a column, if a value is not otherwise provided when one inserts a new row. For instance, the following column declaration specifies the default value for the state column to be NY : State Char(2) DEFAULT 'NY',
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