# how to print barcode in crystal report using vb.net INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE in Java Encode USS Code 128 in Java INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE
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An algorithm defines a detailed and unambiguous sequence of actions for solving a particular problem or for performing some task. If you have ever followed a recipe when cooking, followed a set of driving directions, or filled out an income tax form, you have worked with an algorithm. For example, at some point in time you were probably taught how to determine the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two numbers. In case you ve forgotten, the GCD of two positive integers is the greatest integer that is an even divisor of both numbers. For example, the GCD of 42 and 30 is 6. The algorithm given below can be used to compute the GCD of two positive integers a and b: If b is zero, then the GCD of a and b is a. Algorithm ends. Set r to be the remainder obtained from the integer division of a and b. Repeat this process using b and r. Consider computing the GCD of 42 and 30. Let a = 42 and b = 30. We start the process at step 1 of the algorithm. Since b is not zero, we proceed to step 2. In step 2 we compute the remainder obtained when 42 is divided by 30, which is 12. Step 3 instructs us to repeat the process, this time using 30 and 12. So on this second trip through the process a is now 30 and b is now 12. Since b is not zero, we compute the remainder of 30 and 12, which is 6, and repeat the process using 12 and 6. As before, since b is not zero, we compute the remainder of 12 and 6 and get zero. We will now repeat the process using 6 and 0. This time through, since b is now zero, we conclude that the GCD of 42 and 30 is 6. Algorithms are essential to the way computers process information because a computer program is basically an electronic form of an algorithm that tells the computer what specific steps to perform to carry out a specified task. In order to study an electronic form of an algorithm, a computer scientist must also understand the computer that will be used to execute the steps of the algorithm. The term hardware is used to describe the physical, tangible parts of a computer. A keyboard, mouse, motherboard, graphics card, and processor are all examples of computer hardware. Just as a racecar driver needs to understand the capabilities and limitations of the vehicle they are driving, a computer scientist must also understand the hardware platform on which computing algorithms will be implemented. It is not enough just to know how to drive in the case of the racecar driver, and it is not enough just to know algorithms to be a computer scientist. An algorithm that is optimal for a particular hardware platform may not be optimal on another. Algorithms are typically expressed in a form that can be easily understood by a human being. For example, the algorithm given earlier to compute the GCD of two numbers was written using the English language so that it would be easy for you to understand. Even though you may understand more than one language, the only language that a computer understands is machine language. Machine language is a system of codes that the computer is designed to interpret. Each word in machine language represents a simple action that can be performed by the computer. For example the machine language instruction add instructs the computer to add together two numbers. (In Chap. 3 on Computer Organization, we will explain machine language in much more detail.) The set of instructions that, when executed by a computer, executes the steps of an algorithm is called a program. It is difficult for humans to work directly with machine language. Machine instruction words consist of rows of ones and zeros, typically 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits long, and sometimes varying in length. Since people have difficulty manipulating these strange codes directly, computer languages have been developed to ease the process of converting an algorithm into a form that the computer can act upon. We refer to these languages as higher-level languages, because the languages have been designed to allow humans to work at a higher level than at the level of ones and zeros of the computer. Machine language, on the other hand, is often referred to as a low-level language. Java, FORTRAN, Basic, and ADA are just a few examples of high-level languages that are used by computer scientists to express the algorithms they have developed. The act of expressing an algorithm using a low-level or high-level language is referred to as programming. Over the years, starting in the 1950s, computer scientists have created many higher-level languages. In the early days some experts thought that it should be possible to develop one language that would be best for all uses. Since then, however, computer scientists have found that language design always trades off some features and capabilities for others. As a result, today we have many good higher-level languages, some particularly suited to symbol manipulation, some particularly good for teaching programming, some good for matrix
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