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An advantage of the little endian design is evident with the JMP instruction because the short version of the JMP instruction takes only an 8-bit (1-byte) operand, which is naturally the low-order byte (the only byte). So the JMP direct with a 2-byte operand simply adds the high-order byte to the low-order byte. To say this another way, the value of the jump destination, whether 8 bits or 16 bits, can be read starting at the same address. Other computers, such as the Sun SPARC, the PowerPC, the IBM 370 and the MIPS, are big endian, meaning that the most significant byte is stored first. Some argue that big endian form is better because it reads more easily when humans look at the bit pattern, because human speech is big endian (we say, four hundred, forty, not forty and four hundred ), and because the order of bits from least significant to most significant is the same within a byte as the ordering of the bytes themselves. There is, in fact, no performance reason to prefer big endian or little endian formats. The formats are a product of history. Today, big endian order is the standard for network data transfers, but only because the original TCP/IP protocols were developed on big endian machines. Here is a representative sampling of machine instructions from the Intel x86 machine instruction set. Most x86 instructions specify a source and a destination, where each can in general be a memory location or a register. This list does not include every instruction; for instance, there are numerous variations of the jump instruction, but they all transfer control from one point to another. This list does provide a comprehensive look at all the types of instructions: MOV ADD SUB DIV IMUL DEC INC AND OR XOR NOT IN OUT JMP JG JZ BSF BSWAP BT CALL RET CLC CMP HLT INT LMSW LOOP NEG POP PUSH ROL ROR SAL SAR SHR XCHG move source to destination, leaving source unchanged add source to destination, and put sum in destination subtract source from destination, storing result in destination divide accumulator by source; quotient and remainder stored separately signed multiply decrement; subtract 1 from destination increment; add 1 to destination logical AND of source and destination, putting result in destination inclusive OR of source and destination, with result in destination exclusive OR of source and destination, with result in destination logical NOT, inverting the bits of destination input data to the accumulator from an I/O port output data to port unconditional jump to destination jump if greater; jump based on compare flag settings jump if zero; jump if the zero flag is set find the first bit set to 1, and put index to that bit in destination byte swap; reverses the order of bytes in a 32-bit word bit test; checks to see if the bit indexed by source is set procedure call; performs housekeeping and transfers to a procedure performs housekeeping for return from procedure clear the carry flag compare source and destination, setting flags for conditions halt the CPU interrupt; create a software interrupt load machine status word loop until counter register becomes zero negate as two s complement transfer data from the stack to destination transfer data from source to stack rotate bits left rotate bits right shift bits left, filling right bits with 0 shift bits right, filling left bits with the value of the sign bit shift bits right, filling left bits with 0 exchange contents of source and destination
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Other computer families will have machine instructions that differ in detail, due to the differences in the designs of the computers (number of registers, word size, etc.), but they all do the same, simple, basic things. The instructions manipulate the bits of the words mathematically and logically. In general, instructions fall into these categories: data transfer, input/output, arithmetic operations, logical operations, control transfer, and comparison. Upon such simple functions all else is built. MEMORY Computer memory is organized into addressable units, each of which stores multiple bits. In the early days of computing (meaning up until the 1970s), there was no agreement on the size of a memory unit. Different computers used different size memory cells. The memory cell size was also referred to as the computer s word size. The computer word was the basic unit of memory storage. The word size of the IBM 704 was 36 bits; the word size of the Digital Equipment PDP-1 was 18 bits; the word size of the Apollo Guidance Computer was 15 bits; the word size of the Saturn Launch Vehicle Computer was 26 bits; the word size of the CDC 6400 was 60 bits. These machines existed during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The IBM 360 family, starting in the mid-1960s, introduced the idea of a standard memory cell of 8 bits called the byte. Since then, computer manufacturers have come to advertise memory size as a count of standard bytes. The idea of the computer word size is still with us, as it represents the number of bits the computer usually processes at one time. The idea of word size has become less crystalline, however, because newer computer designs operate on units of data of different sizes. The Intel Pentium processes 32 or 64 bits at a time, but it is also backwards compatible to the Intel 8086 processor of 1980 vintage, which had a word size of 16 bits. To this day, the Intel family of processors calls 16 bits a word, and in any case each byte has its own address in memory. Today the byte is the measure of computer memory, and most computers, regardless of word size, offer byte addressability. Byte addressability means that each byte has a unique memory address. Even though the computer may be a 32-bit machine, each byte in the 4-byte computer word (32 bits) can be addressed uniquely, and its value can be read or updated. As you probably know, the industry uses prefixes to set the scale of a measure of memory. A kilobyte is 1024 bytes, or 210 bytes roughly a thousand bytes. A megabyte is 1,048,576 bytes, or 220 bytes roughly a million bytes. A gigabyte is 1,037,741,824 bytes, or 230 bytes roughly a billion bytes. We hear larger prefixes occasionally, too. A terabyte is 1,099,511,627,776 bytes, or 240 bytes roughly a trillion bytes. A petabyte is 1,125,899,906,842,624, or 250 bytes roughly a quadrillion bytes. Such numbers are so large that their discussion usually accompanies speculation about the future of computing. However, we are starting to hear about active data bases in the terabyte, and even the petabyte range (http://www.informationweek.com/ story/IWK20020208S0009). Memory is used to store program instructions and data. The basic operations on memory are store and retrieve. Storing is also referred to as writing. Retrieval is also referred to as fetching, loading, or reading. Fetch is an obvious synonym for retrieve, but what about load By loading one means loading a register in the CPU from memory, which from the point of view of the memory system is retrieval. There are at least two registers associated with the memory control circuitry to facilitate storage and retrieval. These are the memory address register (MAR) and the memory data register (MDR). When writing to memory, the CPU first transfers the value to be written to the MDR, and the address of the location to be used to the MAR. At the next memory access cycle, the value in MDR will be copied into the location identified by the contents of the MAR. When retrieving from memory, the CPU first stores the address to read in the MAR. When the read occurs on the next memory access cycle, the value in that location is copied into the MDR. From the MDR in the memory controller, the data value can be transferred to one of the CPU registers or elsewhere. Main computer memory, such as we have in our PCs, is referred to as random access memory (RAM). That means we can access any element of memory at will, and with roughly the same speed, regardless of address. By contrast, consider information and data stored on a magnetic tape. Magnetic tape is a kind of memory (we can store data on a magnetic tape), but magnetic tape is definitely not random access. Magnetic tape is serial access. We can read the contents of memory location 4000 only after having read and passed over all those locations that come before.
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