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In addition to main memory, which has been the focus of our discussion so far, computer designers also usually provide small, high-performance memories, called cache memories, that are located close to the CPU. Cache memory may even be located on the same electronic chip as the CPU. Cache is the French word for hiding place. Cache memory is used to hold a copy of the contents of a small number of main memory locations. This turns out to be very useful, because program execution demonstrates a property called locality of reference. By locality of reference, we mean that for relatively long periods of time, the execution of a program will reference and affect a small number of memory locations. Accesses to memory are not random. Rather, for one period of time the program will read and write one part of memory, for example, an array of numbers, and for another period of time the program will store and retrieve from a different part of memory, for example, a record from a data base. When the computer copies the contents of main memory currently being accessed to cache memory, the CPU can avoid waiting for access to slower main memory, and access the cache instead. Since access times for cache memory are typically 5 to 10 times faster than access times for main memory, this tactic has proven very generally effective. Almost all computers built since 1980 have incorporated one or more cache memories in their design. The management of cache memory is challenging, because the system must keep the contents of the cache memory synchronized with the contents of main memory. Engineers call this cache coherency. As long as the program is reading from memory, but not writing, there is no problem. When the program writes to memory, however, both main memory and cache must be updated. Also, when the program begins to access a new area of memory, one for which the contents are not already reflected in the cache, the cache management algorithm will typically bring to the cache the needed word as well as a number of following words from memory. At the same time, the cache management algorithm must decide which contents of the current cache to discard. As complex as this management is, use of cache memory usually makes a very noticeable difference in performance, with speedup of average memory access often in the neighborhood of 50 percent. INPUT AND OUTPUT (I/O) Obviously, most data on which we compute resides outside of the computer itself; perhaps it s originally on paper receipts, or in lists on paper. And when computation is complete, we want to see the results outside of the computer s own memory; on a display, or on paper, for example. While there is variation in the way CPUs, memory, and caches are implemented, there is even more variation in the ways in which I/O is implemented. First of all, there are many different I/O devices. Some are for interacting with humans, such as keyboards, mice, touch screens, and displays. Others are for use by the computer directly, such as disk drives, tape drives, and network interfaces. I/O devices also vary enormously in speed, and they re all much slower than the CPU and main memory. A typist working at 40 words per minute is going pretty fast, and striking about 200 keys a minute, or one key every .3 seconds. Let s compute how many instructions a 1 GHz personal computer might execute during that .3 seconds. Some instructions execute on one clock cycle, but many require more than one. Let s assume that an average instruction requires 3 cycles. If that s the case, then the 1 GHz computer executes 330 million instructions per second, or 99 million instructions in the time it takes to type one letter. To get a feel for the difference in speed between the keyboard and the CPU, imagine that the typist walks one foot in the time it takes to type one letter, and imagine also that the computer travels one foot in the time it takes to execute an instruction. If that were the case, then in the time the typist walks a foot, the computer travels 18,750 miles, or about three quarters of the way around the earth! In the early days of computing, the CPU would wait for each character to be typed. A machine instruction would ready the keyboard interface to accept a character from the keyboard, and the next instruction would test to see if the character had been received. If the character had not yet been received, the program would simply loop, testing ( polling ) to see if the character had been received. This is called programmed I/O with polling, or busy waiting. It s a simple but prohibitively costly approach. Today computers use an interrupt system to avoid busy waiting, and the operating system supervises all I/O. Each I/O device is connected to the computer via an I/O controller. An I/O controller is a small,
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