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special-purpose computer within the computer. It has a few well-defined functions, and a small amount of memory of its own with which to buffer (store temporarily) the information being sent or received. When a program requires output, for example, the operating system moves the data to the buffer memory of the I/O controller for the device, and commands the I/O controller to start the operation. From that point on, the main computer is free to do other work, while the I/O controller handles the details and timing of moving the data to its destination. When the data transfer is complete, the I/O controller creates an interrupt which notifies the main computer that the transfer is now finished. The operating system responds to the interrupt in an appropriate way, perhaps by starting another output operation to the same device (think of multiple lines going to a printer). When a program requires input, the operating system will suspend the execution of the requesting program and command the I/O controller of the device to start reading the necessary data. The operating system will then transfer control of the CPU to a different program, which will execute while the first program is waiting for its input. When the requested data become available, the I/O controller for the device will generate an interrupt. The operating system will respond by suspending the execution of the second program, moving the data from the buffer on the I/O controller to the program that requested the data initially, and restarting the first program. The interrupt system is used for all data transfers today. While that is so, there are also some useful categorizations of device types. Devices may be categorized as character devices or block devices. A keyboard is a character device, and a disk is a block device. A character device transfers a character (8 bits) at a time, and a block device transfers a buffer, or set of data, at a time. Other examples of character devices include telephone modems and simple terminals. Other examples of block devices include CD-ROM drives, magnetic tape drives, network interfaces, sound interfaces, and blocks of memory supporting devices like displays. Character devices interrupt on each character (8 bits) transferred, and block devices interrupt only when the entire block has been transferred. Modern computer designs usually include a facility called direct memory access (DMA) for use with block devices. The DMA controller is its own special computer with access to memory, and it shares access to main memory with the CPU. DMA moves data directly between the buffer in the I/O controller and main memory, and it does so without requiring any service from the CPU. Block devices can be used without DMA and, when they are used that way, the practice is called programmed I/O with interrupts. With programmed I/O, the block device interrupts when the buffer is ready, but the operating system must still use the CPU to move the data between the buffer on the I/O controller and the destination in main memory. When DMA is used with a block device, the data are transferred directly between the device and main memory, without requiring assistance from the operating system and the CPU. The operating system starts the transfer by specifying an address at which to start and the count of bytes to transfer. The CPU is then free to continue computing while the data are moved in or out. This is a further improvement in system efficiency, and today DMA is almost universally used for disk and other block transfers. SUMMARY Modern computers implement the von Neumann architecture, or stored program computer design. Program instructions and data are both stored in main memory. The components of the computer design are the CPU (including the control unit and the ALU), memory, and input/output. Computers operate in base-2 arithmetic. Any number base can be used for computation and, just as humans find 10 fingers a convenient basis for computation, machine builders find 2-state (on off) devices easy to build and convenient for computation. We discussed the simple math facts for binary math, and showed how subtraction is accomplished using 2 s-complement addition. We also discussed the concept of the computer word, and the implications of computer word sizes of different numbers of bits. Data are encoded in different ways, depending on the type of data. We described integer, floating-point and character encodings. The program interprets the bit pattern in a computer word depending on what it expects to find in that memory location. The same bit pattern can be interpreted in different ways when the program expects one data type or another. The programmer is responsible for insuring that the program correctly accesses its data. The CPU consists of two parts. The control unit is responsible for implementing the steady cycle of retrieving the next instruction, decoding the bit pattern in the instruction word, and executing the instruction.
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