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This chapter will introduce a wide variety of topics related to computer software and programming languages. We will discuss some of the history of computer languages, and describe some of the varieties of languages. Then we will discuss the operation of language processing programs that build executable code from source code written by programmers. All these discussions will be incomplete they are intended only to introduce the topics. However, we hope to impart a sense of the variety of approaches to computer programming, the historical variety of languages, and the basic mechanisms of compilers and interpreters. GENERATIONS OF LANGUAGES To understand the amazing variety of languages, programs, and products which computer scientists collectively refer to as software, it helps to recall the history of this young discipline. Each computer is wired to perform certain operations in response to instructions. An instruction is a pattern of ones and zeros stored in a word of computer memory. By the way, a word of memory is the basic unit of storage for a computer. A 16-bit computer has a word size of 16 bits, or two bytes. A 32-bit computer has a word size of 32 bits, or four bytes. A 64-bit computer has a word size of 64 bits, or eight bytes. When a computer accesses memory, it usually stores or retrieves a word of information at a time. If one looked at a particular memory location, one could not tell whether the pattern of ones and zeros in that location was an instruction or a piece of data (number). When the computer reads a memory location expecting to find an instruction there, it interprets whatever bit pattern it finds in that location as an instruction. If the bit pattern is a correctly formed machine instruction, the computer performs the appropriate operation; otherwise, the machine halts with an illegal instruction fault. Each computer is wired to interpret a finite set of instructions. Most machines today have 75 to 150 instructions in the machine instruction set. Much of the architecture of a computer design is reflected in the instruction set, and the instruction sets for different architectures are different. For example, the instruction set for the Intel Pentium computer is different from the instruction set for the Sun SPARC. Even if the different architectures have instructions that do the same thing, such as shift all the bits in a computer word left one place, the pattern of ones and zeros in the instruction word will be different in different architectures. Of course, different architectures will usually also have some instructions that are unique to that computer design. The earliest computers, and the first hobby computers, were programmed directly in the machine instruction set. The programmer worked with ones and zeros to code each instruction. As an example, here is code (and an explanation of each instruction), for a particular 16-bit computer. These three instructions will add the value stored in memory location 64 to that in location 65, and store the result in location 66.
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0110000001000000 (Load the A-register from 64) 0100000001000001 (Add the contents of 65) 0111000001000010 (Store the A-register in 66) Once the programmer created all the machine instructions, probably by writing the bit patterns on paper, the programmer would store the instructions into memory using switches on the front panel of the computer. Then the programmer would set the P register (program counter register) contents to the location of the first instruction in the program, and then press Run. The basic operational loop of the computer is to read the instruction stored in the memory location pointed to by the P register, increment the P register, execute the instruction found in memory, and repeat. An early improvement in programming productivity was the assembler. An assembler can read mnemonics (letters and numbers) for the machine instructions, and for each mnemonic generate the machine language in ones and zeros. Assembly languages are called second-generation languages. With assembly language programming, the programmer can work in the world of letters and words rather than ones and zeros. Programmers write their code using the mnemonic codes that translate directly into machine instructions. These are typical of such mnemonics: LDA m ADA m ALS SSA JMP m Load the A-register from memory location m. Add the contents of memory location m to the contents of the A-register, and leave the sum in the A-register. A Left Shift; shift the bits in the A-register left 1 bit, and make the least significant bit zero. Skip on Sign of A; if the most significant bit in the A-register is 1, skip the next instruction, otherwise execute the next instruction. Jump to address m for the next instruction.
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The work of an assembler is direct; translate the mnemonic op-codes into the corresponding machine instructions. Here is assembly language code for the program above that adds two numbers and stores the result in a third location: LDA 100 ADA 101 STA 102 //Load the A-register from 100 octal = 64 //Add to the A-reg the contents of 101 (65) //Store the A-register contents in 102 (66)
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Almost no one codes directly in the ones and zeros of machine language anymore. However, programmers often use assembly language for programs that are very intimate with the details of the computer hardware, or for programs that must be optimized for speed and small memory requirements. As an educational tool, assembly language programming is very important, too. It is probably the best way to gain an intuitive feel for what computers really do and how they do it. In 1954 the world saw the first third-generation language. The language was FORTRAN, devised by John Backus of IBM. FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation. The goal was to provide programmers with a way to work at a higher level of abstraction. Instead of being confined to the instruction set of a particular machine, the programmer worked with statements that looked something like English and mathematical statements. The language also included constructs for conditional branching, looping, and I/O (input and output). Here is the FORTRAN statement that will add two numbers and store the result in a third location. The variable names X, Y, and Z become labels for memory locations, and this statement says to add the contents of location Y to the contents of location Z, and store the sum in location X: X = Y + Z Compared to assembly language, that s quite a gain in writeability and readability! FORTRAN is a procedural language . Procedural languages seem quite natural to people with a background in automation and engineering. The computer is a flexible tool, and the programmer s job is to lay out the
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