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In procedural programming, the code for a specific job is contained in a named procedure. Another name for a procedure is often subroutine. For instance, one might create a procedure to find the standard deviation of an array of numbers. The standard deviation of a measure is defined as the square root of the average squared deviation from the mean. Here is the population standard deviation, and is the population mean: s=
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m )2 / n
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If one is working from a sample and intending to infer the standard deviation of the larger population, the best estimate will be obtained by dividing the sum of deviations by (n 1) instead of n. Here s is the sample standard deviation, and x is the sample mean: s=
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x )2 / (n 1)
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An equivalent formula often useful for computation is the following: s = ( xi 2 nx 2 ) / (n 1)
i =1 n
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To write a procedure to perform this calculation, one might write a program to do the following: Set SUM and SUMSQUARES equal to 0.0 Set n = size of the array of scores Start with the first score, and continue until all the scores have been processed Set SUM = SUM + score Set SUMSQUARES = SUMSQUARES + score2 End of loop Set MEAN = SUM/n Return the SquareRoot of (SUMSQUARES n * MEAN2) / (n 1) This is the recipe, the procedure, the pseudocode, for calculating the standard deviation of an array of numbers. Here is a Java class called Sd that implements such a procedure in a routine called stdDev: import java.lang.Math; class Sd { public static void main( String args[] ){ float[] numbers = { 3, 5, 7, 9 }; System.out.println( "Std. dev. = " + stdDev( numbers) ); } public static float stdDev( float scores[] ) { float sum = 0; float sumSquares = 0; int n = scores.length; for( int i = 0; i < n; i++ ) { sum = sum + scores[i]; sumSquares = sumSquares + scores[i]*scores[i]; } float mean = sum / n; float variance = (sumSquares - n*mean*mean) / (n - 1); return (float)Math.sqrt( variance ); } }
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Execution starts at main. The main program creates an array of four floating-point numbers, and then it prints the character string "Std. dev. = ", followed by the number returned from the stdDev routine when stdDev is passed the array of four numbers. The code in stdDev follows our pseudocode above, using a for loop to iterate through all the numbers in the array that the main passed to stdDev. Java was designed to be an object-oriented language, and object orientation provides even more sophisticated ways to create modules of code than a strictly procedural language like FORTRAN offers. Nevertheless, one can program procedurally in Java, as we have done above. Procedural programming captures standard solutions to computational problems in blocks of code that can be accessed by name, that are reusable by means of a standard set of inputs (arguments the variables passed into the routine), and that return a standard set of outputs. Notice, too, that variables have procedure scope; variables that are declared within the procedure, like sum and sumSquares, and are visible only within the procedure. This helps avoid confusion regarding the variables being used, and thus adds to program reliability. Once you have a routine that calculates the standard deviation of an array of numbers, that routine can be used again and again. Such reuse can be accomplished by including the routine in whatever new program one writes, or by adding the routine to a library where other programs can access the procedure by name. This structuring of code is a giant step beyond unstructured programming where the entire program, whatever it is, consists of a single monolithic block of code. With unstructured code, branching and repetitive use of code are accomplished using conditional statements and GOTO or JUMP statements. The result can be programs that are difficult to read, prone to errors, and difficult to debug spaghetti code. Structured programming divides the programming task into modular procedures. This important advance in program design greatly improves program readability, reliability, and reusability. The larger task is broken down into a series of subprocedures. The subprocedures are then defined (written), and the structured programming task then becomes one of calling the well-tested subprocedures in the appropriate order. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Object-oriented (OO) programming is a more recent development that provides approaches that further advance software reliability and reuse, and that often allow the software to fit better with our understanding of the real world that our programs may be reacting to, or trying to control. Instead of procedures, OO programming relies on software objects as the units of modularity. An individual object is an instance of a type, or class. One creates an instance by using the specifications of the class. As an analogy, my car is an instance of the class automobile it has four wheels, a motor, seats, etc., like all cars do, but my car is one specific car among the many automobiles in the world. An instance of a class has its own state, or values of its characteristics. My car is red; your car is blue; both are automobiles. My car has 170 hp; yours has 200 hp. My car is not moving at this moment; your car is traveling at 34 mph. The class automobile specifies that all automobiles have color, horsepower, and speed (among other things) as attributes or instance variables. Objects also have behavior. Behavior is determined by procedures of the class, and such procedures are called methods. An automobile class will have methods such as changeSpeed (to accelerate or decelerate), park, refuel, and turn. Given an instance of the automobile class, a program could invoke the changeSpeed method, for example, to cause that particular car to go faster. The changeSpeed method is called an instance method, because it affects an instance of the class automobile (one particular automobile). Making the software object the unit of modularity has some important advantages. First, OO programming encapsulates the state and behavior of objects. Programs wishing to use the code of an object can access that code only through public instance variables and public instance methods. When a program invokes the changeSpeed method of an automobile, the invoking program has no visibility of how the change is effected. This prevents programmers from taking advantage of details of implementation. It may sound like a disadvantage to prevent programmers from taking advantage of knowledge of implementation details. However, over many years programmers have learned that things change. When one takes advantage of some particular implementation detail, one risks having one s program fail when the class is upgraded. So, in OO programming, the contract between the class and the user is entirely in the specification
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