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If this sounds magical, wait to read more in the classes and objects section coming later in this chapter. Rest assured that, in the end, it all boils down to bits (1s and 0s) in the computer. Object orientation is just a different way of naming and thinking about what s going on in the computer, and it s helpful because it usually makes thinking about the computation more natural. Also, object orientation often leads to software that is more easily used for multiple purposes, thus constantly expanding our resource of useful, tested programs. But Java programmers need some basic data types to get started. These Java primitive types are not objects, but are simply the definitions of the varieties of data with which all Java programs can work. The primitive types fall into three categories: 1 integral types 2 floating-point types 3 boolean type integers and characters fractional numbers true or false values
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It may seem strange to call characters one of the integral types, but the reason is that each character is represented by an integer value. For instance, when you type an A , the keyboard sends the integer value 65, the integer code for A , to the computer. The code for B is 66, etc. Lowercase characters have different codes. For instance the integer code for a is 97, and the code for b is 98. So letters are just integers underneath, and software treats the bits as numbers or character codes depending on the context. The Java primitive types, by category, are these: 1 integral types byte 8 bits wide short 16 bits wide int 32 bits wide long 64 bits wide char 16 bits wide 2 floating-point types float 32 bits wide double 64 bits wide 3 boolean type boolean logical 128 to 127 32768 to 32767 2 billion to 2 billion very small ( 2 63) to very big (2 63 1) integers Java uses Unicode character codes +/ 3.4 1038 with 6 7 significant decimal digits +/ 1.8 10308 with 14 15 significant decimal digits true or false
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Among the integer and floating-point types, the cost of computing with greater precision is that the higher-precision types require more space to store, and computations involve larger numbers of bits. Here is an example Java program that uses only primitive data types: public class Primitive { public static void main( String[] args ) { int x; int y; int z; y = 7; z = 4; x = y + z; System.out.println( "x = " + x ); } } Every program in Java is a class, and that is why the first line says that this is a public class (available for use by anyone) called Primitive. The next line says that this is the start of a method called main. Any Java program must have a main method declared exactly as this is. The line "public static void main( String[] args ) {"
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is where the program starts. This line will be in all your programs. This line tells the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) where to start running your program. Public means that anyone can run the program, static means that there is only one main method for the class, void means that the main method will not return any values, and String[] args means that if the user provided any command line arguments, they are available to the program in an array of String variables called args . Some of this probably doesn t make sense to you right now, so for now simply remember that every one of your programs must have a main method, and the first line of the main method must be written exactly as this example is written. Notice that every statement in Java ends with a semicolon! Notice, too, that the Java language is case-sensitive. The variable x is different from the variable X. The class name of Primitive is different from a class name of primitive. The next three lines declare three variables of type int. The variables x, y, and z are each int variables, which means that each one requires 32 bits for storage, and each one represents an integer value. The JVM will reserve the required space for x, y, and z. The next three lines assign the value of 7 to y, 4 to z, and the sum of 7 and 4 to x. Finally, the last line displays the characters x = and the value of x, which is 11, on the standard output device, usually the display. The result is: x = 11 Notice the curly braces (i.e., { ... }) in the code. One pair of curly braces surrounds the body of the class Primitive, and one pair of curly braces inside Primitive surrounds the body of the method main. You must use curly braces to mark the beginning and end of a code block in Java. A code block is a compound statement, and a code block can consist of variable declarations and statements. Classes, methods, loops (which we have not yet discussed), and control structures (which we have not yet discussed) all define code blocks, and blocks can be nested within one another to any level. Use your favorite editor to type this code, and then save your work as file Primitive.java. The next step is to compile your code using this command: javac Primitive.java When that is successful, you can run your program by typing: java Primitive Make sure all this works before continuing. Aside from the Java primitive types, all data types in Java are classes. In other words, every class in Java represents a new data type. A programmer in effect creates a new Java data type every time the programmer creates a new class. The class Primitive above is a class, but it doesn t have any facilities for use by other programs, so it s not a good example of a reusable new data type. Soon we will show classes that do create new data types that can be useful to other programs, however. Sometimes you will find it necessary to operate on objects instead of primitive types. This is because objects are reference types, and are handled differently internally than primitive types. For the purpose of converting variables of primitive types to reference types, Java provides a set of wrapper classes so that the programmer can always create an object having the same value as a corresponding variable of a primitive type. The Java wrapper classes corresponding to the primitive types are these: Primitive byte short int long char float double boolean Wrapper Class Byte Short Integer Long Character Float Double Boolean
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