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A convenient interface for users Networking services Messaging and synchronization services between processes Utility system software such as editors, loaders, help, etc.
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OPERATING SYSTEMS HISTORY Batch Jobs Early conceptions of computing revolved around computing jobs. A computational job would be presented to the computer, the computer would process the job, and the computer would deliver an answer. The first operating systems made this sort of use easier, and were known as batch operating systems (1955 1965). A resident monitor (the operating system) provided the commonly needed routines to perform I/O to the devices of the day (most of the OS code consisted of device drivers), and to format data back and forth between encoded form and binary values. The resident monitor also provided a simpler user interface through job control language (JCL). The user would embed JCL commands to the operating system in the sequence of program instructions and data presented to the computer as a batch job. A user could prepare a payroll job, for example, using a deck of punched cards where the first card identified the job and the user, the next called for a particular compiler (probably FORTRAN), the next group of cards comprised the program source code, the next card called for the loader to assign particular addresses in memory, the next card called for the OS to run the program, and the following cards presented data on which the program would operate, probably the hours worked by each person that week. Multiprogramming (mid-1960s on) In the mid-1960s, operating systems were enhanced to provide multiprogramming capability. That meant that several programs could be loaded at the same time, and the operating system would switch among them to make sure the machine stayed as busy as possible. Computers were extremely expensive, so the OS was improved to make better use of the computer time. If one program was waiting for a magnetic tape to be mounted by the computer operator, another could be scheduled to run while the first waited. IBM s OS/360 was a good example of such a multiprogramming batch operating system. Multiprogramming required some important advances. Because several programs could execute concurrently, I/O control of unshareable devices became even more important. For instance, printed output that interleaves lines of output from different programs is not very useful! So the OS provided more than just device drivers; the OS also provided locking mechanisms so that only one program at a time, for example, could send data to the printer. Interrupt systems were added to the I/O hardware so that slow I/O tasks could be started without requiring all the jobs on the computer to wait. Once the I/O for a job was started, the system could schedule some other computation until the I/O task completed and generated an interrupt, signaling readiness to continue with the first job. With more than one program in memory, it also became important that one user was not able to address, even by accident, memory allocated to another program. Memory protection hardware, comprising base (starting address) and limit (maximum program size) registers along with address checking hardware, was added to the machines, and the operating system managed the contents of the memory protection registers. With this new dependence of user programs on services provided by the operating system came the requirement that some instructions be reserved for use only by the operating system. For instance, only the OS should be allowed to change the contents of the base and limit memory protection registers. Only the OS should determine which print request goes to the printer at any particular time. The solution was a hardware mode switch to provide a user mode context and a privileged mode context. (Other words for privileged mode include system mode, monitor mode, and kernel mode.) Certain instructions, such as loading the base and limit registers, and all I/O instructions, became privileged instructions. Privileged instructions can only be executed when the computer is in privileged mode. When the computer boots up, the hardware sets the computer to privileged mode and the operating system begins executing. As soon as the OS starts a user program executing, the OS sets the mode to user mode.
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