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With multiple CPUs, the OS does not have the luxury, as is the case in a single-processor system, of simply disabling interrupts while it completes uninterruptible work. With multiple CPUs, each has its own interrupt system, and synchronization can require additional hardware like an interprocessor bus with a locking protocol, and very careful analysis of other resource-locking mechanisms. REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS A small but important category of operating systems is called real time. Real-time systems are constrained to execute within limited and defined time windows. A computer recording frequent readings from an instrument such as a frequency counter or voltmeter could be an example. Recording the values and reacting to them, if necessary, within a specified time is critical for real-time systems. Real-time operating systems include special features that tailor them to critical real-world responsiveness. For instance, process scheduling is usually based strictly on priority rather than on some round-robin timesharing scheme. The highest-priority task is always the one that will be executing. For example, with a real-time system, when the valve controlling cooling water to the nuclear reactor needs adjustment, that task will get the CPU, and it will not have to share time with a word processor. Some real-time systems also permit preallocation of disk space, either as part of the file system or independent of the file system. When a program writes to the disk, it will not incur the overhead of a general-purpose file and directory manager. Memory management may be more wasteful but faster to execute in a real-time system. Rather than tailor the amount of memory allocated to a process, the OS may simply dispatch a process to a fixed, large block of main memory, thus reducing the setup time for the process. In all these ways, real-time systems support fast interaction with instruments and devices in the outside world. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS By far the most common type (by simple count) of operating system today is the embedded system. Embedded systems lie within the automobiles, airplanes, thermostats, and other devices we use every day. It s easy to overlook the fact that they are there, but our day-to-day lives are ever more dependent on such systems to supervise the execution of the built-in programs for the microprocessors controlling everything from dishwashing to transportation. MANAGEMENT OF INPUT AND OUTPUT The early operating systems consisted largely of a collection of code for device drivers. One could argue that the most fundamental service of the operating system is to manage I/O, so that programmers can focus on higher-level activity, and so that shared I/O devices are shared properly. Strictly speaking, the operating system (or any software doing I/O directly) interacts with the device s interface (or controller, or adapter ), rather than the device itself. Every I/O device such as a printer, disk, or mouse connects to an interface, often a separate printed circuit board, and the interface connects to (plugs into) a bus (an electronic connection path consisting of multiple lines) in the computer. When information is sent out to a device, the information is passed to the device controller, and the controller is given a command by the computer to transfer the information to the device. The controller then does so. When the transfer is complete, the controller signals the computer that the task has been accomplished. The controller itself represents a significant off-loading of detail for the computer. For example, the computer can tell the disk controller that it wants to write a set of bytes at a certain address (track and sector), and the controller will take care of commanding the disk read/write heads to move, and of actually causing the bits to be written in the right place. In general, devices are classified as character or block devices. Roughly, these terms equate to slow or fast, respectively. A character device like a keyboard or printer transfers one character, or byte, at a time. A block device like a disk or a tape drive transfers a whole buffer, some multiple number of bytes, at a time. On the other hand, some devices don t fit in this classification, such as a monitor with memory mapped video.
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