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distinction between threads of execution within a process, and the process itself as a set of resources available to all threads. Not all, but a significant number of, programs can take advantage of threads. A common example is a word processor that checks one s spelling as one types. One thread attends to the typing at the keyboard, and a second thread constantly checks to see if the words typed match any of the words in the dictionary. Both threads are part of the same process; they share access to the same files, the same user, the same memory, etc. In the case of the word processor, the keyboard thread gets priority, so that the user feels the computer is quickly responsive to his or her typing. When the computer is waiting for more typing to occur, the background spell-checking thread can inspect the words for correct spelling. This approach to program design is referred to as multithreading. Getting back to the concept of a process, let us consider what the operating system does when one runs a program. The operating system creates a table entry for each process running on the machine. Usually the entry is referred to as a process control block (PCB), but the name for the concept varies among operating systems. The PCB is used to track all the information about the process, and it includes fields such as the program name, code location on the disk, priority, state (ready/waiting/running), open files, memory boundaries, parent process (the process which started the process), user ID, group ID, and storage for the register contents and program counter value when the process is interrupted. The PCB is a fairly large structure; a PCB for a single process in Linux is over 350 bytes in size. When a program is run, the process does not necessarily execute immediately. First the OS creates the PCB, and then it adds the process to the Ready queue; the process enters the Ready state. The operating system will select one of the Ready processes to execute, and that process will enter the Running state. A process in the Running state will continue to run until the process completes, the OS decides that a higher-priority process should run instead, the OS decides to give another process a chance to use the CPU for a while (i.e., the time quantum, or timeslice, expires on the running process), or the running program must pause to perform some I/O, wait for some resource to become available (e.g., a shared file), or receive a message or signal from another process. How is it that, the OS decides to give another process a chance to use the CPU There s only one CPU, and the executing process has control. It seems an impossibility that the OS could have any influence at all, once it turns the CPU over to the executing process. The answer to this conundrum is the system clock. The OS programs the computer s clock to generate an interrupt at set intervals. For example, the SunOS has the clock interrupt at 10 ms intervals, so 100 times per second the clock generates an interrupt, just like an I/O device. When the clock interrupts, the hardware shifts to monitor mode automatically, and the instruction stored in the memory location associated with the clock device vectors to the OS code that handles clock tick processing. At every clock tick, the OS will check to see if the time quantum of the executing program has expired, if any I/O device has timed out, and if any process priorities need adjustment (some scheduling algorithms use such time-based adjustments). It will also update the system time-of-day clock to keep it accurate. When the OS completes its clock tick processing, it will again put the computer in user mode and transfer control of the CPU to the appropriate user process. Besides being in the Ready or Running state, a process can also be in the Waiting (or Blocked) state. Some OSs have more than one waiting state as a way to segregate processes waiting for different conditions, such as waiting for I/O, waiting for child processes to complete, waiting for memory, etc. The SunOS recognizes five states: Running, Runnable in Memory (i.e., Ready), Runnable Swapped (i.e., Ready, but the code is on the disk at the moment because the process was removed from memory in favor of another process), Sleeping in Memory (i.e., Waiting), and Sleeping Swapped (i.e., Waiting for some event like an I/O completion, and the code is on the disk so that another process can occupy the memory). When a process moves out of the Waiting state, it does not go directly to the Running state. Instead, when the event for which it was waiting occurs, a Waiting process becomes Ready. The OS then chooses from among the Ready processes one process to run. THREADS Modern operating systems often provide the thread model for execution control. Threads allow multiple lines of execution within a single process. This is much like multiple processes, but without the overhead of
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